Motivated by Red Bull?
How International Sponsorships Influence the Sport Spectating Consumption Motivation
Written by A. Ankeshian
Business Administration>Communication & Media
Master Thesis: Motivation Motivation indicates the strength and direction of someone's behavior (Kondric, Sindik, Furjan-Mandic, and Schiefler, 2013). If sponsored brands will affect consumers' sports audience motives, that is the core of this article. In this case, the statement of Touré-Tillery and Fishbach (2014, p. 328) seems particularly appropriate, because the researchers point out that motivation is the "psychological force that facilitates action." Ryan and Deci (2000, p. 54)) provide further statements that literally associate it with sports "to be motivated means to be moved to do something". Therefore, this sub-chapter is used to examine the term and explain its meaning in the context of sports. Individuals differ not only in the level of motivation they have to achieve specific goals, but also in the direction of established goals. The first focuses on the number of motivations, the latter covers specific types of motivations and their underlying causes (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Since motivation has long been the subject of academic literature (Toure-Tillery & Fishbach, 2014), its research depends on the specific research scope. Therefore, motivations can be divided into different types. In order to be able to analyze a specific interest motivation, it is necessary to distinguish its various types. Touré-Tillery and Fishbach (2014) distinguish between result-centric (external) motivation and process-centric (intrinsic) motivation, but they also understand that usually not only one of the two actively pursues a single goal. In addition, it is almost controversial that researchers mentioned that motivation is a psychological concept that cannot be directly observed or measured. Therefore, when trying to capture it, they usually pay attention to observable cognition, emotion, behavior, and physiology. reaction. Due to the scope of the paper at hand, this literature review distinguishes between result-centric (external) and process-centric (intrinsic) motivations. Because these types of motivations represent general differences between each other (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Touré-Tillery & Fishbach, 2014), they are considered to be applicable to the scope of this paper and therefore help to consider each other. 2.4.1 Intrinsic Motivation and Process-Oriented Motivation According to Touré-Tillery and Fishbach (2014, p. 328), both process-centric and intrinsic motivation refer to “the motivational dimensions related to the factors related to the goal pursuit process, which originate from Internal motivation. Benefits". This internal benefit can have different dimensions, such as enjoyment or an increase in one's self-image. Similar to this definition, Ryan and Deci (2000, p. 56) also refer to intrinsic motivation as "intrinsically motivated to engage in an activity" to be satisfied rather than for some separable result." 2.5.3 The role of Red Bull in high-risk sports Red Bull was first launched on the Austrian market in 1987 and created a new product category of energy drinks. So far, Red Bull has been listed in 171 countries/regions. Since entering the market, more than 68 billion cans of Red Bull have been consumed (Red Bull, 2018). The brand offers five different product categories, namely Red Bull Energy Drink, Red Bull Sugar Free, Red Bull Zero Calorie, Red Bull Version, and Red Bull’s ORGANICS (Red Bull, 2018). Under the company's slogan, the energy drink of "Red Bull Gives You Wings" promotes the consumption of products and makes the body and mind full of vitality (Red Bull, 2018). In addition, the brand is also known for participating in extreme sports and creating corresponding events, such as Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Cliff Diving or Red Bull BC One (Red Bull, 2018). In 2012, Red Bull participated in one of the most famous brand content cases with its "Red Bull Stratos" project. This is a space diving project in cooperation with Austrian skydiver Felix Baumgartner, who completed a record 39 km free fall and put the company's slogan "Red Bull Gives You Wings" into action (Red Bull Stratos, 2012). It is estimated that this jump cost Red Bull about 50 million euros, which should be only a small part of the company's annual marketing budget (Sports Business Daily, 2012). 2.5.4 The role of Dark Dog in high-risk sports Dark Dog was created in Austria in 1995 and launched in 2000 after the final concept was approved. The company's homepage shows that its products are highly recognized in Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Sweden, Austria, France and other countries. Despite this, the brand is distributing its products in more than 30 countries around the world (Dark Dog, 2018). The company’s original drink contains caffeine and other vitamins from guarana berries. Other versions are also available, such as a sugar-free version, a zero version, and a version with a blood orange flavor. Under the company's slogan, #HeroesOnlydifferent sports are promoted, such as kite surfing, cliff diving, parachuting, motorsports, rock climbing, etc. (Dark Dog, 2018). 2.6 Research gaps In terms of the pursuit of achieving established research goals, the topics covered in this literature review are interrelated. Therefore, these topics are considered each other to identify research gaps. A literature review on sponsorship shows that most research in this field involves understanding, analyzing, and measuring the beneficial response of sponsorship to sponsored brands (Speed & Thompson, 2000; Grohs, Wagner, and Vsetecka, 2004; Mason, 2005; Gwinner and Bennett) , 2008; Alonso-Dos-Santos et al., 2016). Read Less