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Impact of Restricted Smoking Areas on the Smoking Behaviour in Germany

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Term Paper: 2.1 Smoking behavior statistics In order to approach this hypothesis, this chapter defines the latest developments in German smoking behavior, non-smokers protection law ("Bundesgesetz zum Nichtraucherschutz"), and restricted smoking areas and other related topics. Like most OECD countries, cigarette consumption in Germany has been declining since the early 2000s (Heilert & Kaul, 2017, p. 103). Although men are still more likely to smoke than women, smoking rates among men have fallen sharply since 2000, while smoking rates among women have declined steadily. In addition, it is assumed that cigarette consumption will further decline by 2025. The legal considerations regarding non-smoking areas will be presented below in order to provide hypotheses for the decline in cigarette consumption. 2.2 Laws and Policies on Restricting Smoking Areas On September 1, 2007, the Federal Law on the Prevention of the Harm of Passive Smoking ("Gesetz zum Schutz vor den Gefahren des Passivrauchens") came into effect. The law only applies to federal facilities including the federal government and public transportation systems, because the state requires the law in accordance with the Constitution (BMG, 2015, p. 1). According to federal law, smoking is strictly prohibited in public and federal buildings, with some exceptions, so-called no-smoking areas. A non-smoking area can be defined as a non-smoking area. Areas include rooms, marked spaces, areas, and places. Restrictions on private facilities and smoking bans are regulated by laws at the federal level, some of which differ between German federal states (DGUV, 2014, p. 1). Private facilities include: restaurants, discos, bars, schools, kindergartens, community facilities, tents and youth centers. Although the definition of non-smoking areas in private facilities is the same, the scope of conditions varies from state to state (DGUV, 2014, p. 2). 2.3 Hypotheses Based on observations of hypotheses, the following hypotheses can be inferred: The law of no-smoking areas isolates smokers from the group (psychological consequences). • Isolation affects smoking behavior and leads to a reduction in smoking. • Peer pressure (if you are the only smoker in the group), and then physical separation can affect smoking behavior. • Smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions of group belonging (whether they belong to the "friend" group or the "smoker" group). • As the number of smokers decreases, the sense of community among smokers will also decrease. • Smoking in some places (camel box, going out, separate room) requires extra effort, which may be considered uncomfortable. 3. Methodology In order to generate inferences from hypotheses, quantitative methods of deductiveism and quantitative research have been selected. This is outlined by the causal research design that serves as the basic framework of the methodology. Surveys in the form of standardized questionnaires are used as research tools to collect the required quantitative data. The causal research design was chosen because the research hypothesis describes a causal relationship: the relationship between the smoking area restriction policy and smoking behavior in Germany. As a result, the decrease in cigarette consumption (independent variable) is affected by the reason and the policy of restricting smoking in public places (dependent variable). The purpose of research is to confirm or reject hypotheses and provide subtle derivations (De Vaus, 2006, p. 15). It has been confirmed that the no-smoking area policy has an impact on smoking behavior, leading to a decline in cigarette consumption. If there is no relationship between policy and smoking behavior, the hypothesis can be rejected. The research is based on deductiveism and quantitative theory. In view of the observation results of the decline in cigarette consumption, data on the impact of the smoking restriction policy on German smoking behavior will be collected in the form of a survey. Quantitative research allows systematic and standardized comparisons to create reliable, reproducible and effective analysis of the impact of policies on smoking behavior (Creswell, 2003, p. 154). To support quantitative research and causal research design, a survey was conducted. Survey research tools bring various advantages, such as the ability to collect data from a large number of respondents, increase the flexibility of data analysis, or determine validity, flexibility, and reliability due to advanced statistical techniques. In addition, the time and cost of the survey are less, easy to manage, reduce geographic dependence, and ensure anonymity (Frick and Sean Law, 2002, p. 347). In the course of the research, the survey was conducted to summarize smoking behavior from the sample size to the German population, so interference can be carried out. 4. The pre-test phase and the structure of the questionnaire were modified to collect information about individual participants, data about their smoking behavior, and the impact of policies. These effects are subdivided into three categories: changes in awareness, degree of impact, and smoking behavior. To complete the picture, the last question asked the participants to express their personal opinions on other possible reasons for people to change their smoking behavior. Read Less