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Robot Development

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Master Thesis: Raspberry Pi Raspberry Pi is a card-sized SoC that can perform small and medium-sized tasks that traditional desktop computers can perform. The charitable foundation is funded by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, and its goal is to contribute to the advancement of young people and adults in the field of computer science. This is one of the reasons why people can get a Raspberry Pi computer for about $35 and start developing some of the most commonly used projects for IoT applications. There is a model called Pi Zero, which costs about $5 but has fewer facilities. The world's third best-selling computer brand follows the ARM CPU architecture and also has an onboard GPU. The ARM architecture follows the RISC architecture. Unlike the CISC architecture, this ISA has a lower CPI. A typical Raspberry Pi computer is not connected to peripheral devices. It has a 900 MHz 32-bit quad-core ARM processor, onboard HDMI port to connect it to a display device, 3.5 mm audio jack port, USB port, Ethernet port, 40 GPIO pins (the pin layout is shown in the figure 2-2), 1 GB ram, micro SD card supports internal memory and so on. The number of ports and other facilities depends on the Pi.Pi model. Pi runs on the Raspbian open source Debian-based operating system that uses a Linux distribution, so unlike Windows, you can get this operating system without any cost. There are several versions of Raspbian OS available, including Jessie and Stretch. The desktop version can be used with the GUI to make it more robust to use. Python is the programming language of choice for Raspberry Pi. For beginners who want to start software development on Pi, Raspberry Pi Foundation recommends Python programming language. It also supports Scratch, HTML5, JavaScript, jQuery, Java, C programming language, C++, Perl and Erlang. 2.1.1 RaspberryPi 3 Model B v1.2 Raspberry Pi Model 3 is the first model of the third-generation Pi SoC card, which was first launched in 2016. In terms of differences, compared with the previous version (ie Pi and Pi 2), it has a faster 1.2 GHz processor, and it also incorporates built-in BLE and WLAN modules. BLE provides critical energy efficiency by turning off the radio and sending a small amount of data at a low transmission speed when using Bluetooth. In terms of benchmark tests, the processor used by Pi 3 can provide more than 50% performance improvement when processing 32-bit applications, which makes it ten times faster than Pi's first model. The third-generation Pi is the first SoC card that supports 64-bit applications. Therefore, this creates more opportunities for software development, especially for beginners using Raspberry Pi Model 3. As shown in Figure 2-1, Raspberry Pi 3 Model B v1.2 supports more input current (up to 2.5 Amps), which allows us to power more powerful peripherals through a USB connection without the need for additional peripherals. power supply. 2.1.2 Raspberry Pi's power supply mode The Raspberry Pi's power supply plays a vital role in ensuring correct execution and operation. Because in most cases, due to insufficient power supply, Pi becomes unresponsive during operation and generates errors and crashes. Raspberry Pi recommends applying 5V and 2 Amp to meet the minimum requirements. The number of peripherals connected to the Pi increases the current required for its stable operation. There are several ways to power Pi. They are listed below. The easiest and recommended way to power Pi through the microUSB port is to use the micro USB port available on the board as shown in Figure 2-3. The problem can be solved by directly connecting to a 5V input voltage and 2 ampere input current source. 2. Another way to power Pi through the GPIO port is to connect the 5V source input and ground to the onboard GPIO pins, as shown in Figure 2-4. The Pi model changes according to the GPIO pin number. In Pi 3 Model B, there are several 5V and ground pins available. 3. Via the USB port this way is a bit tricky. It is not possible to directly power the Pi by supplying power on the USB port. Only after powering the Pi through the micro USB port, the Pi can operate with the power of the connected USB cable. The latest version of the Raspberry Pi has a low voltage indicator icon, which indicates low voltage when the operating system is running. It is best to use the micro USB port to power the Pi because it has built-in features, such as fuse protection when powering through the micro USB port. For GPIO ports, there is no regulation or protection. Therefore, applying unregulated voltage and current through the GPIO port may eventually damage the Pi permanently or burn the GPIO pins. When keeping the Pi running through the USB port, you need to remember that the USB port in the Pi has a specific 500 mA current limit. Pi is prone to errors when the input voltage fluctuates, especially when the input voltage becomes less than 5V. Click to mention; other peripherals will get power from the Pi's USB port to power themselves when the connection is established. Experts suggest that the input voltage is 5.25V and the current is 2.5A. It is better to use a little more than 5V input voltage and 2 Amp current. 2.2. Arduino Arduino is an open source electronic hardware and software. It designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers or microcontroller kits. Depending on the model, a typical Arduino board can have many microprocessors and microcontrollers. It was originally developed to provide the tool for use as hardware and software in order to provide rapid prototyping for electronics and programming beginners. Arduino has a community platform supported by students, professionals, programmers and hobbyists around the world. Thousands of projects and ideas using Arduino can be freely accessed on the Internet. Read Less