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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

The Role of Internal Communication and Employee Engagement

Written by Per Ola Bjørneseth

Paper category

Master Thesis

Subject

Business Administration>General

Year

2017

Abstract

Master Thesis: The history of CSR It is almost impossible to set a starting point in time for the concept of CSR. Therefore, it is a challenge to conduct a complete review. The following content has a little bit, but aims to highlight the most important contributions. According to Carroll (2015), people must go back hundreds of years to find the root of CSR, and these signs may even be older. However, Bowen’s book "Businessmen’s Social Responsibility" published in 1953 was titled "The Father of Corporate Social Responsibility" by Carroll (2006), trying to get executives to reflect on their roles and the impact of their companies on society. Overall impact-the first definition of corporate responsibility appeared in the printed matter: It (SR) refers to the businessman's obligation to pursue these policies, make these decisions, or follow these lines of action, which is desirable in terms of our society’s goals and values (Carroll, 2008, p. 3). 25). According to Carroll (2015), the most important pioneer of the CSR movement led the emergence of social movements such as civil rights, consumer rights and women's rights, including other environmental participation. These movements are driven by the ever-increasing expectations of consumers, employees, and citizens, who have formed the notion that companies are accountable to a wider range of stakeholders (Carroll, 2015). Murphy, Kangun, and Loander (1978) identified four CSR eras around the 1950s, which he categorized as follows: 1) the era of charity before the 1950s, 2) the era of consciousness in 1953-1967, and 3) 1968- 1973 was the release era, 4) 1974-1978 was the response era (Carroll, 2008). In corporate social responsibility, the main themes are employee improvement and philanthropy, although there is more talk than action (Carroll, 2008). Later, the stakeholder approach became more important (Freeman, 1984). In 1971, Johnson described responsible companies as: A socially responsible company is a company whose managers balance multiple interests. A responsible company not only strives for greater profits for shareholders, but also considers employees, suppliers, distributors, local communities and the country (Carroll, 2008, p. 28). Although corporate social responsibility is higher on the academic agenda than companies, a study by Eilbirt and Parket in 1973 showed that large companies are participating in important corporate social responsibility issues (Carroll, 2008). Activities are as follows: minority recruitment and training, ecology, contribution to education and art, core recruitment and training, urban renewal and civil rights (Carol, 2008). Regarding whether managers should be able to participate in the discussion of corporate social responsibility issues, Carol (1979) advocated the importance of basic definitions, understanding of the problem, and the philosophy or strategy of response to the problem. 2.3 European Corporate Social Responsibility In the United States, the role and rights of employees have always been one of the longer-term and main themes of corporate social responsibility in its original context. In the United States, fair wages, working hours and conditions, health care, layoffs, prevention Unfair dismissal has always been a key issue. The CSR policy has been addressed (Matten and Moon, 2008). According to Matten and Moon (2008), European companies lack CSR policies on many employment-related issues because the economic institutional framework, especially formal and mandatory rules or laws, define the responsibilities of companies and other societies. Actors in specific social issues. In Europe, corporate social responsibility as a voluntary company policy seems unnecessary, because these issues do not seem to be determined by the company itself, nor are they part of the legal framework. Since the European Union (EU) has long regarded corporate social responsibility as voluntary (Ahern, 2016), the policy focus on sustainability as a long-term driving force for the social market economy in Europe coincides with a regulatory shift in the approach to corporate social responsibility . Sustainability can be defined as “the development that not only meets the needs of contemporary people without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (Carroll, 2015, p. 92), the non-financial reporting directive is a further step to the mandatory non-financial reporting directive. Reports introducing large companies herald a regulatory approach that focuses on sustainability disclosure (Ahern, 2016). Given that companies are given considerable discretion in the form of such disclosures, the effectiveness of such disclosures in practice remains to be seen in terms of achieving consistent transparency and sustainable benefits in the future. However, the increasing number of CSR tools proposed by the European Union, such as ISO 9000, the United Nations Global Compact, and the EFQM CSR framework, seem to be the guarantee for the rapid rise of European CSR (European Union, 2014). These can be regarded as the start of a number of international standards, such as ISO 26000, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, sa), and the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (United Nations, 2011), which provide concepts as guidelines to understand them. Social responsibility and social expectations (EU, 2014). Since the implementation of CSR by the European Commission in 2009, it has been pointed out that CSR communication can increase or improve customer satisfaction and loyalty, employee motivation and productivity, company, brand or product reputation, cost savings, and relationships with local communities and public authorities (Moisescu, Year 2014) Read Less