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The Influence of Taking Photos and Videos on the Memory for Product-Related Information and Subsequently Encountered Advertisements

Written by S. Kipiani

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Marketing & Sales




Master Thesis: Cognitive Offload Hypothesis One possible explanation for the memory impairment effect of photographing is the cognitive offloading hypothesis, which shows that people do not remember information well after taking a photo because they know that the photo is stored in their device and can be easily found And check again if needed (Soares, Storm, 2018). However, the research of Soares and Storm (2018) does not support the cognitive offloading hypothesis, even if consumers know that the photos they took were deleted after they were taken (Soares, Storm, 2018), the memory impairment effect still exists, which indicates that the photo- Shooting can cause memory impairment due to other reasons other than cognitive offloading (Soares, Storm, 2018), and this obstacle may also occur in photos made using the increasingly popular "short-lived" photo-sharing application function. These photos Disappear after a period of time, such as Snapchat, Messenger stories, Instagram stories, etc. (Anderson, 2015). In addition, Soares & Storm (2018) ensured that photo participants watched the stimulus long enough after the photo was taken to ensure that the memory impairment of the photo consumer is not caused by the time consumed by the physical task of aiming. Cameras and photographs, and these photographed consumers have at least as much time as participants who do not have to take photographs purely observing stimuli (Soares, Storm, 2018). Therefore, the reason for the memory impairment effect of photographing is still not very clear. At the end of their research, Soares & Storm (2018) speculated that this may be due to a metacognitive illusion, which is caused by the enhanced fluency of coding, which means that taking pictures will produce a wrong feeling. That is to say, it is easy to study the strategy of being photographed, so that consumers can choose different coding objects, resulting in a lower level of memory performance in the future (Soares, Storm, 2018). It must be pointed out that Storm and Soares did not measure learning judgment or perceptual coding fluency in their research, but merely indicated that these factors may play a role in causing the memory impairment effect of photographing. If this is the case, that is, if the metacognitive illusion is the cause of memory impairment in photographing, then, in our opinion, not only the memory of the subject will be damaged, but people's memory of any information is also poor. They will be exposed to the same product in the future because they will believe that they have a good understanding of the product. This may affect the effectiveness of native ads such as online ads, sponsored articles, social media posts, outdoor ads, and even word of mouth. Let's study the metacognitive theory in depth to explain exactly why the metacognitive illusion occurs. 2.2 Metacognition and learning judgment Metacognition refers to the "consciousness of our own cognition", which involves how people evaluate the effectiveness of their learning efforts and how they adjust learning strategies based on these evaluations (Rhodes, 1996). Nelson and Narens (1990) are the authors of the most widely accepted theoretical model of metacognition. Nelson and Narens (1990) outline the two processes that constitute metacognition. The first process is called monitoring, which means evaluating a person's learning. The second process is called control, which describes "self-regulation of learning based on the information obtained from monitoring", that is, allowing a person to control and modify his or her learning strategy based on the information obtained from the monitoring process (Rhodes, 2016, Nelson, Narence, 1990). In our experiments, according to the framework of Nelson and Narens, a high degree of judgment and metacognitive illusion of learning are part of the monitoring process. People who change the way they encode objects after taking a photo or video can cause memory damage, which is part of control. In our research, we anticipate that taking photos or videos will impair the memory of what was captured and the advertisements we see later. In our view, both of these memory disorders are part of the control process outlined in the Nelson and Narens framework. One of the most common ways to gain an in-depth understanding of the monitoring process and its impact on the control process is to elicit judgments about learning from people, which means asking them to evaluate the possibility of remembering what they have learned in the future (Rhodes, 2016). Therefore, if an experimental group judges learning higher than the other group, but performs worse or similar in memory tests, there is a metacognitive illusion because the group mistakenly believes that they have learned the target material well And they will be able to recall, but in fact their memory is not superior. Today, most researchers agree that judgments about learning are not based on direct access to memory, but rely on multiple cues (Koriat, 1997, Rhodes, 2016). In short, this means that when people evaluate whether they will be able to recall a piece of information in the future, they do not actually evaluate how their memory is stored, but make judgments based on various heuristics or clues, such as learning materials. How easy is it, how easy it is to recall these materials in the past, etc. (Rhodes, 2016). The clues that affect learning judgment can be divided into three categories. These are internal clues, external clues and mnemonics. Intrinsic clues are characteristics of the project under study, for example, how clearly the text is written. External clues are "coding conditions and the process of learner application", such as whether to repeat learning. Read Less