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Social Entrepreneurial Motivation

An Exploration of the Antecedents Based on The Life Story Method

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Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Entrepreneurship




Master Thesis: Social Entrepreneurship This section constructs the general background of social entrepreneurship for this research. Therefore, a brief review of the definition, history, and previous research of social entrepreneurship is proposed. The past definitions and the definitions of this study are discussed in Section 2.1.1 below. Definitions of social entrepreneurship Several definitions of social entrepreneurship have been formulated. However, no agreement has been reached on specific definitions (Dees, 1998 cited in Zahra et al., 2009; Austin, Stevenson, and Wei-Skillern, 2006; Mair & Martí, 2006; Peredo & McLean, 2006; Zahra, et al. People, 2006). , 2009). To understand this conflict, most of the cited studies including definitions are listed in the table and discussed below. Looking back at the most frequently cited definition of social entrepreneurship, there are four common areas: social value and change, innovation, opportunity, and to some extent resources. Social change and social value and social wealth creation can be used interchangeably. For example, changing the clean water supply in Africa, from digging fountains to drawing water from the air by creating new equipment, is an innovative way to solve social problems. Opportunity includes social awareness to identify and utilize opportunities for limited resources (such as skills, finances, material, and social networks). therefore. , Social entrepreneurship is similar to entrepreneurship. However, social entrepreneurs do not create value by filling gaps in the market, but create social value. Mair and Martí (2006) define social entrepreneurship as a process, while Peredo and McLean (2006) describe it as being executed by an individual or a group of people and increasing risk tolerance. Defining social entrepreneurship as a process may mean that social entrepreneurship is not a point in time, but several stages leading to social entrepreneurship. Compared with working in a company with a guaranteed monthly income, social entrepreneurs are more uncertain about their income. They tolerate the risk of not being able to generate enough money to create social value. Austin, Stevenson, and Wei-Skillern (2006) considered different organizational forms from non-profit organizations to for-profit organizations and hybrid organizations, while Zahra et al. (2009) Inspired by Hayek, Kirzner and Schumpeter in entrepreneurship. Therefore, they emphasize the aspects of start-ups or internal entrepreneurship, and put forward the concept of three types of social entrepreneurs (see 2.1.3 Research on Social Entrepreneurs). Although even the most cited definitions do not fully fit several aspects, they do have a common basis. 2.2. Social Entrepreneurial Motivation Due to the complexity of the term social entrepreneurial motivation, it is divided into motivation, entrepreneurial motivation and social entrepreneurial motivation. After describing the meaning of each term, past research was discussed. Finally, a research gap is proposed to highlight the key points of the paper to fill up entrepreneurship research. First of all, motivation is "...a reason for a person to act in a specific way, a motivation" (OED Online, 2016) in psychology. Sociology describes motivation as "general desire or willingness" (OED Online, 2016). This shows that motivation is an important factor in explaining personal behavior. Most of the research that leads to social entrepreneurship motivation refers to entrepreneurial research that applies social science and psychological theories (Carsrud & Brännback, 2011). Entrepreneurship motivation is usually related to the creation of a new business. These motivations include independence, profit orientation, and autonomy (Estay, Durrieu, and Akhter, 2013). Shane, Locke, and Collins (2003, p. 274) developed a model that divides entrepreneurial motivations into general motivations and task-specific motivations. General motivations are the need for achievement, control points, foresight, desire for independence, passion and motivation. The motivation for a specific task is goal setting and self-efficacy. Edelman et al. (2010) The motivation is divided into entrepreneurial motivation and growth motivation. They concluded that entrepreneurs are motivated to start a business because of their achievements, influencing role models, realizing their ideas, achieving financial success or innovation. Only the last three motives are considered growth motives. The findings of Carsrud and Brännback (2011) classify internal motivation and external motivation as motivations that partially overlap with previous authors. They concluded that traditional entrepreneurs may be motivated by external incentives, such as money, power, and prestige, but they may also be motivated by internal incentives, such as achievement. In addition to these motivations, they admit that not all types of entrepreneurs can be encouraged by maximizing profits. For example, the types of social entrepreneurs and lifestyle entrepreneurs have stronger intrinsic motivations. On the other hand, necessities entrepreneurs hope to avoid failure at all costs, because if they don’t make enough money to support themselves and their families, it’s about their survival. Braga, Procença, and Ferreira (2015) provide a good overview by comparing the motivations of social entrepreneurs and traditional entrepreneurs in the table below. Read Less