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Collectivism against Individualism in a Creative Environment

Written by Johannes Danielmeyer

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Term Paper






Term Paper: Collectivism or individualism? This issue is especially important in a team environment where the main goal is to be as efficient as possible. But it cannot be answered in general terms, because the orientation of team members (such as collectivism or individualism) has different effects on team performance according to team goals, composition and working methods. Since the active role of the highly collaborative collectivist project team among team members has been proven, (also through the paper that provided the basis for this research) this research also covers the impact of individualism on team performance, especially for the need to generate new ideas And creative team. Basically, this research will investigate the characteristics of collectivism versus individualism in a creative environment. Which aspects, related to the direction, have a positive effect on the result, and which have a negative effect? Prior to the study of methodology, evaluations of collectivism, individuals, and adoption will be characterized. In addition, creative generation and corporate creativity will be introduced as performance indicators. The difference between the two group orientations lies in the relative emphasis on independence or interdependence within a group (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). In an individualistic culture, people are seen as independent with unique patterns (Markus & Kitayaman, 1994). Contrary to this independence and uniqueness, people in a collectivist culture believe that they are interdependent with the group they belong to. The main goal is to promote the interests of the group, and when individualism is “real” to oneself, needs and desires are the central goals (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, and Nisbett, 1998). Encourage individualists to resist social pressure and express their unique values ​​and preferences while striving for special recognition (Kitayama, Markus, & Lieberman, 1995). Generally speaking, when there are disagreements, individualists are willing to face the members of the group, and competition and personal happiness are mainly emphasized. Collectivist contradictors have no incentive to stand out from their group through competitive behavior or achievement. Collectivists value cooperation and unity (Dierdorff, Bell, and Belohlav, 2011), so it is considerable that they resist expressing uniqueness in order to establish connections with other team members. In order to measure the characteristics of collectivism, the group measurement aspect will be used as an indicator. Preferences, attention, dependence, norm acceptance and goals prioritize the aspects of collectivism, while: preference describes the degree to which team members value the relationship with group members; dependence on the degree to which team members accept the team’s common responsibility; attention degree describes how team members receive The degree of concern for the well-being of the team and its members. In order to measure the characteristics of individualism, the measurement aspect is also used. Priority of personal goals, independence and lack of attention represent aspects of individualism, while: Priority of personal goals describes the degree to which team members prioritize individual goals over collective goals, and whether the only motivation is their own preferences, needs, and rights; independence Sex represents the degree to which team members think they are independent of the group and define themselves almost entirely in personal terms. Finally, the lack of attention describes the degree of personal rational analysis of the pros and cons of interacting with others and the degree of emotional alienation from team members (Realo, Anu, Koido, Ceulemans, and Allik, 2002). The key performance indicators related to this research are collaborative creativity and creativity generation. But before we introduce collaborative creativity, we must first define creativity itself. Creativity is defined by new and useful ideas (Amabile 1983). People with high creativity usually have the characteristics of independent judgment, autonomy and self-confidence (Gonzalo & Stew, 2006). Cooperatecreative represents the degree of creativity in the organizational environment, and can also be seen as a constant for innovation. It can be measured according to Joe Khatena (1971). Different opinions and methods are not necessarily counterproductive. Instead, they cause the team to reconsider what is said in order to find solutions more creatively. One example is brainstorming. Due to group pressure and fear of negative reviews, people avoid expressing ideas that they think are too impractical or strange (Goncalo & Staw, 2006). Because of this incident, many ideas were not expressed or executed. Corporate creativity and continuous innovation have a huge impact in today's business world. Some businesses are mainly driven by creativity and innovative behavior, which not only represents relevance, but also proves the rationality of the business-related content of this research. 2. Theoretical background The "consistency experiment" first conducted by Solomon Asch in 1951 represents the theoretical basis of this research. In this experiment, the aim is to investigate the degree to which social pressure from the majority group (consisting of the seven confederations) affects the likelihood of an individual (a real participant) confirming the previous wrong answer in most cases. In a total of 18 trials, the Allies gave wrong answers on 12 paths. The results of the study proved the consistency of individuals under group stress. In a total of 12 key trials, an average of 75% confirmed at least, 32% of whom confirmed more frequently, but only 25% never confirmed pass. Read Less