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Agile Project Management Challenges

Analyzing and Exploring Agile Project Management Challenges from a Practitioner Perspective: A Case Study on HMS

Written by A. Mohan

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Management




Master Thesis: Project Management According to the Project Management Knowledge Handbook (2000, page 6), a project is defined as "a temporary activity within a team that produces a unique product or service". In addition, project management is defined as "the application of skills, knowledge, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet a set of requirements" (Project Management Institute Inc, 2000, p. 6). Due to globalization and internationalization, these companies are under pressure to remain competitive in the market. The company began to engage in project-based activities to solve this problem by reducing uncertainty and delivering products to the market on time (Raymond & Bergeron, 2008). Projects related to the fields of information technology, pharmaceuticals, and construction have one thing in common. They must be managed, planned, equipped, organized, monitored, controlled and evaluated the market (Raymond & Bergeron, 2008). The project is characterized by unique, innovative, complex, uncertain, ambiguous, and facing ever-changing needs. Therefore, the company must continue to evolve to meet changing needs (Nerur, Mahapatra and Mangalaraj, 2005). The 2015 Standish Group Chaos Report summarizes the results of more than 10,000 projects from 2011 to 2015, and emphasizes that, in general, for projects of all sizes, agile projects are more successful than waterfall projects. From the figure, we can understand that the probability of agile project success is three times higher than that of the traditional waterfall method, but it is increasingly being challenged by the bureaucracy spreading in traditional project management practices. Challenge projects are those projects that have been completed but failed in one of the three dimensions of the Iron Triangle (cost, schedule, scope). The report concluded, “In the past 20 years, the project management field has experienced more and more levels of project management processes, tools, governance, compliance, and supervision. However, these activities and products have not improved the success of the project. Rate. The project management knowledge system (2008) is used as a baseline to better understand project management. From the perspective of the project life cycle, the project is divided into 5 different processes, namely, initiation, planning, execution, control and closing. The actual phase The number varies from project to project. In traditional methods, these processes are completed in a continuous and linear manner, while in agile methods, these processes are completed in a iterative and adaptive manner (Wysocki, 2014). 2.2 Project management methods Historically, tools and techniques developed to implement project management practices have only been used in a limited number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, and construction (S. Cicmil, 2000). Today, the use of project management practices has spread across various fields (Perminova, Gustafsson, and Wikström, 2008), and project management itself has become a discipline (Atkinson, 1999). This illustrates how project management practices are more mature in today's enterprises. Two methods are used in this discipline, namely traditional project management methods and agile project management methods. 2.2.1 Traditional project management Traditional project management is used for projects that require more control (Hall, 2012). Managers in traditional project management make plans for the project, and determine the scope and time to complete each task with estimated resource availability (Nicholls et al., 2015). The main assumption of traditional project management is that better planning will lead to better project results (Nicholls et al., 2015). In the traditional method, a large amount of initial planning and effort is to determine the scope of the project, make no changes as much as possible, and execute tasks according to a determined timetable, thereby vigorously implementing the plan (Nicholls et al., 2015). This is also called a plan-driven approach, and it can be used effectively when the requirements and goals are easily and clearly defined before the project is initialized (Wysocki, 2014). Wysocki (2014) also pointed out that a lot of preliminary planning has been done to reduce the uncertainty and risks of the project, which will also help the consensus among stakeholders and improve efficiency. However, early planning is one of the biggest weaknesses of this approach because they cannot adapt to changing external needs that may affect the project (Wysocki, 2014). Stakeholder participation in this process is very limited, and these models did not provide any results to the project. Customers until the end of the project. The entire product is delivered to the customer at the end of the phase. Therefore, if the product fails to meet the customer's requirements, it will cause additional costs (Wysocki, 2014). Due to today's dynamic business environment, organizations tend to move away from traditional methods because they are no longer flexible to adapt to changing customer needs and demands (Fernandez & Fernandez, 2008). Another shortcoming of TPM pointed out by Aguanno (2004) is that any design changes adopted during the testing and development phases of the project may cause confusion, because the waterfall model requires the previous tasks to be completed first. Read Less