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Digitalization and construction project management

What consequences the use of ICT-tools has had on the project manager role in the construction industry

Written by M. Damström

Paper category

Master Thesis


Architecture & Real Estate




Master Thesis Project Management: Introduction In this chapter, the background to the topic is described. The aim of this study is presented, as well as the research questions. Furthermore, the limitations are discussed. 1.1BackgroundIn an industry that has been previously slow at adapting to the digital community(Headrick, 2017), more and more digital methods, tools and software emerge to handle the increasing complex construction projects. Over the last 25 years the whole building industry has gone through a substantial change of working processes and communication, due to the IT-revolution (Lundgren, 2019). Integrating and using information and communication technologies to their full potential are one of the most important challenges for businesses across industries today. The pressure on companies to transform digitally and to make this a strategic priorityto seize the opportunities the digital technologies bring is increasing (Hassainietal.,2017). Information has always been closely related to the way work has been performed.Going back in time it has influencedhabits such as knowing when to plant crops and how to use machines(Forman et al., 2014). Informationand technology, digital technologies,significantly influenceworkpractices. However, how this happens is still poorly understoodwhich means thatthere is a need for further understanding of the relationship between information, technology and work practices (Forman et al., 2014). Arecent topic in society today is the epidemic outbreak of the COVID-19 virus. The virus is causing many people to stay at home as much as possible to stop the disease from spreading. This is also a case of information that is changing behavior. This has resulted in an increasedusage of digital platforms and hosting digital meetings, since many are now working from home(Warren, 2020). In a quick empirical trend survey by the organization Digital Marketing Exposition & Conference (DMXCO), the results showed that 78% of the international respondentsthinks that it will be more accepted to work from home after the crisis with the virus has passed. 66% believe that this will accelerate the pace of digital transformation in business and 59% believe that digitalcommunication and collaboration tools will become more important (Malev, 2020). In other words, the majority believe that there will be an increased digitalization in the near future, further stressing the importance of this subject. Building information modeling (BIM) is one of the digital technologies many of the companies within the construction industry are seeking to implement. For about 40 yearsit has been an interestto companies, however there are still issues with effective implementation and use of BIM (Smith, 2014). There are many studies about the different perceived benefits to BIM (Azhar, 2011; Fazli et al., 2014; Hoseini et al., 2019), although BIMchallenges traditional work processes and practices in construction projects (Kerosuo et al., 2015). 2Using digital technology for communication is often seen as a managerial tool, essentially assigning the construction project manager as responsible for the digitalized communication process within construction projects (Wikforss and Löfgren, 2007). Project information management can be seen as a formal sub-discipline of project management (Froese, 2006). Since the use of digital tools such as Building Information Modeling (BIM), digital project platforms and digital meetings are nowadays important in the communication and information sharing within projects, it possibly hashad multiple consequences for the project managers.Partly because leading change is a managerial challenge (Canterino et al., 2020), but also because there are expected consequences of ICT-tools to the project manager (Wikforss and Löfgren, 2007; Rokooei, 2015).1.2Research gapHow ICT is used in the construction industry has been researched, as well as users’ opinions on different ICT-tools (Löfgren, 2006; Wikforss and Löfgren,2007; Jacobsson and Linderoth, 2012). The expected benefits to using different ICT-tools have also been thoroughly investigated, especially concerning BIM. Althoughresearchhas mainly been performed witha project, organizational or theoretical perspective, and not based on a study with a project manager perspective (Ahuja et al., 2010; Azhar, 2011; Brydeet al., 2013;Chen and Luo, 2014; Liet al., 2017; Rezahoseini et al., 2018; Hoseini et al., 2019). The factors affecting the implementation and understandingof ICT-tools has been researched in multiple studies (Hartmann et al., 2012; Jacobsson and Linderoth, 2012; Fox, 2014; Jahanmir and Cavadas, 2018), as well as leadership in digital change (Oberer and Erkollar, 2018). Still, the project manager perspectiveis not present in these studies. This means that there is limited recent research about how ICT-tools directly affect the role of the project manager from a construction project managerial perspective, especially that has a high validity and credibility, which is focused on in this study. 1.3Purposeand research questionsThe purposeof this study is to understand how ICT-tools has affected the role of the client’s construction project manager over the last 5 years. Togain knowledge on what consequences the use of digital tools such as BIM, digital project platforms and digital meetings has had on the onthe project manager role and how they deal with the consequences.With knowledge of the consequences and how ICT-toolsaffect the role of the client’s construction project manager,it enables the project manager to stay more vigilant to the risks and opportunities whenusing certain tools. It also creates a possibility to easier be able to know, as a project manager, how to overcome problemsrelated to the digital work processthat might occur within the project team.It is an important topic to create an efficient implementation process and a favorableworkflow when working with different ICT-tools, which is an important part in the construction industry. 3How has digitalization over the past 5 years affected the role of the client’s construction projectmanagerin a Swedish consultancy firm:-What changes in digitalization of the project manager work has occurred over the last 5 years?-How is the client’s construction project manager benefitted by using different ICT-tools in the construction process?-What challenges for the client’s construction project manager exists when using ICT-tools?-What new requirements on the role of the client’s construction project manager does using ICT-tools in project work bring?1.4LimitationsOne of the main limitations within this study was that all interviewees are employed at the same consultancy firm and can be affected by the same values and company culture to incurbias in their answers. However, since it is a consultancy firm, they have extensivecontact with clients and experiences from different projects which might have values and culture that also affects them. The experiences of the interviewees are not limited to any single kind of projects, they have experience of working with housing and infrastructure projects, both new productions as well as refurbishments. There were also a range in their experience when it comes to scope of the project, with smaller projects up to large ones with billions in budget. However, their experiences in working in project with a high level of BIM-integration was limited, which meant that some speculations occurred during the interview, and possibly were mistaken by the author foractual opinions based on experience due to the interviewee’s assurance andstrong belief. When writing about the project managerin this thesis, it is presumed to be a construction project managerworking within the construction industry. The project managerreferred to in this thesis are also presumed to be working for the client, and not the contractor of the construction project. This is the most common case at the consultancy firm which this thesis is written in collaboration with. The author’s pre-gathered opinion of the subject can be seen as another limitation due to the risk of confirmation bias, confirming one’s own belief and missing out on the other results. However, this was actively worked with and an acknowledged risk. The analysis of the results wasdone in a structured and organized way in order to minimize this riskof bias, as can beread about in the chapter 2, Method. 42Method In this chapter, the methods used in the study are presented. The approach to gather empirical data is described and justified as means to answer the research questions.Validity and reliability of the method of analysis is discussed as well as the ethical considerations and selection of respondents.2.1Research approachThis thesis is made with an abductive approach, which is a combination of a deductive and an inductive approach. A deductive study implies that theoretical concepts are used to explain empirics, while an inductive approach means that empirics are used to explain theoretical concepts (Saunders et al., 2009; Bhattacherjee, 2012). This means that an abductive approach means to alternate between empirics and theoretical concepts. The abductive approach was chosen after realizing that the theoretical framework was not sufficient to analyze the findingsof the interviews. This implicates that a deductive approach was the starting point, although changed along the work processof this thesis. 2.2Qualitative studyIn this thesis, qualitative study has been performed. The decision to use a qualitative study was made due to the kind of topic, which is within the social sciences research field. As Leung (2015, p.324)states:”The essence of qualitative research is to makesense of and recognize patterns among words in order to build up a meaningful picture without compromising its richness and dimensionality.” A qualitative study is of a descriptive character and comes to good use in a social sciences field, when trying to understand the meaning of human senses and subjectivity (Leung, 2015). This type of studyis based the data creation expressed in words, which cannot be standardized(Saunderset al., 2009). For these reasons, a qualitative study for the subject of this thesis is a good fit. 2.3Literature studyA literature study was made to achieve an understanding of the previous research in this field and to create a basis for this study. A major focus in the beginning of the literature study was about BIM, what it is and how it is affecting the construction project. The focus point was kept on how it affects the project manager, being responsible for the projects, but also what changes the construction industry has went through in terms of digital technology the last decade. This resulted in looking into moreresearch about ICT technology and what effects ithas had on the different aspects of the project team in terms of communication and information. 5The previous research has mainly been retrieved from platforms such as google scholar and the Royal Institute of Technology’s library portal (KTH Bibliotek),as well as some physical books.It was retrievedpartiallyby searching for the keywords of this thesis: Digitalization, ICT-tools, project management, BIM, Building Information Modeling, digital platforms. Another part of the previous research was found through searching for afew other words to gain further results, such as: Construction project management, digital meetings, digital technology, digital tools, web-based platforms, project platforms, leadership, BIM maturity.All the words searched for wasused in different combinationsand variations.Lastly, an additional part of the previous research was found through the sources ofalready found articles.The previous research has mainly been in the form of articles from scientific journals, to have ahigh credibility in the sources. The literature hasalso been critically analyzed andwhen possible,multiple sources have been used to have a firm basis for the study. This was doneto avoid biasas well as to gain a more comprehensive view of the previous research field.It is important to have a proper view of the previous research, to gain a clear idea of the gap that is to be studied (Saunderset al., 2009).2.4Data Creation –InterviewsFor the data creation part of this study, 12 semi-structured interviews have been performed with construction project managers to gather empirics about the subject. One test-interview was performed before the interviews with the professionals took place. After the third interview, the interview questions were slightly revised. The interviews were performed in Swedish, as is the interviewees’ professional language. This decision was made to avoid unnecessary language barriers. Thus, quotes provided by the interviewees to this study are freely translated by the author. The guiding questions used in the semi-structured interviews can be foundin appendix A (in Swedish). Though keeping in mind that they were solely guiding questions, and additional question wereadded based on the answers during the interviews to get high-quality answers. The interview questions wereformed based on theinformation from previous research, theoryand the research questions. Inspiration to the interview questionswas also found inprevious master theses. To reflect on the interview questions, aquestion form with a non-aligning topic was studied and changed to the topic of this study.This revealed furtherangles tothe questions. The choice to use semi-structured interviews as a method in this qualitative study was made because structured interviews areoften more limiting in qualitative research, due to the firm structure of the questions. Unstructured interviews were also ruled out due to the informal setting and the risk of the interviewees to derail (Saunderset al., 2009). The interviewees are all construction project managers at the same consultancy firm. The consultancy firm is a middle-sized firm with different departments within the construction industry. It consists of more than 1000 employees and has an annual turnover of more than1 6billion SEK. Despite the interviewees being employed by the same company, there were actions taken to achieve as much of a diversified group of interviewees as possible. They were chosen with respect to age, gender, and experience in the working role asa project manager. The experience of being a project manager varied from about 1 to over 20 years in different project managerial roles amongst the interviewees. To distinguish the interviewees while keeping them anonymous, they were divided into two groups based on being either a junior project manager with less than 5 years of experience, or a senior project manager with more than 5 years of experience. The specification for the different interviews can be seen in Table 1. The interviewees were asked to keep a focus on the project managerial role, when having multiple roles in their projects. The project manager role in this thesis is in the form of being the client’s external project manager. When it became evident any of the interviewees was discussing the question from the contractor’s project manager perspective, that material was excluded from the results.Table 1, specification of interviews including experience,setting and duration. Interviewee numberExperienceSettingDuration (minutes)1SeniorPhone602SeniorVideo call603JuniorFace to Face604SeniorVideo call605JuniorVideo call606JuniorFace to face607SeniorVideo call808SeniorFace to face809SeniorFace to face6010JuniorVideo call6011SeniorVideo call6012SeniorVideo call60For an easieranalysis ofthe empirical information gathered fromthe interviews, theyhave been transcribed. The transcribed interviews are available upon request(in Swedish).2.5Ethical considerationsEthical guidelines by the Swedish research council have been followed, taking into consideration the four principles presented in their codex to conduct ethically good research (Vetenskapsrådet, 2002). The following principles are: •The requirement of information: The interviewee was given information about the study, topic of the interview and what the information from the interview would be used. Other information about their rights as voluntary participants and conditions of participating was also given. •The requirement of consent: The intervieweegave informed consent for the interview to be recorded and transcribed. The interviewee was also informed about the right to 7withdraw consent up until one week after the interview had taken place, without any consequences.•The requirement of confidentiality: The information the interviewee provided was and is kept under confidentiality of the researcher. This by the researcher being the only one having direct access to the recordings and making sure the interviewees are anonymous in the thesis. Although the interviewees were informed that the recordings could be made available for the supervisor of this thesis work, but no other third parties have access to their details. •The requirement of usage: The information from the study will solely be used for the purpose of the study, and not commercial use or other non-scientific purposes. To assure that these guidelines were thoroughly followed, all interviewees were either given a consent form to read and sign, or had it read to them before the interview when performing it digitally. This is also according to the principles of GDPR, which is included in the four guidelines(Wolford, 2020).Since all the respondents to the interview work within the project management department of the same company, the numbering of the interviews has been randomized and are not according to the order they were performed. This is made to make sure other employees and coworkers do not have the possibility to identify the interviewees based on the accessible personal schedules. 2.6Data analysis -QualitativeQualitative data is supposed to be analyzed qualitatively, which is what has been done in this study. To analyze qualitatively is to focus on the meaning and interpretations of the results from the data creation, rather than counting statements as would have been done in a quantitative analysis (Saunderset al., 2009). As a start of theanalysis, theresults from the interviewswas summarizedin multiple steps.This was done to gain a comprehensive viewon the findings.In the first step the full transcribed material from the interviews, about 150 pages,were read thoroughly and the most important parts were extracted. In the new document with the most important extracts to the topic of this study, about50 pages with long quotes was studied again and summarized down to the main idea that the interviewees were trying to portray, arranged according to topics. This material was then coded in excel to connect the quotes with the summarized idea. The coded summarized ideas were then arranged in a separate document to get an even more comprehensive idea of the results. This bullet-point document of about 10 pages was the final basis for chapter 5 Findings, referring backto the quotes in the excel-document. The findings were then properly analyzed and discussed, using the theoretical framework and comparing the comparing the findingsto previous studies. This was done to analyze the meaning of the results andto gather what new knowledge they bring to the field. The theoretical framework was used to gain an understanding of the project managers situationand to be able to interpret their statements and put it into the context of the topic this thesis. 8The project management and leadership framework wasused to understand the position of the project manager and how the digital work depends on them. The framework of how users use ICT was applied to understand what influences the application ofICT-toolsand how the project manager can affect the users, as well as assessing what affects the project manager as a user of ICT-tools.Lastly, the framework concerning BIM was used to be able to assess how the project managers are working with BIM and to be able to compare statements, without blurring the different experiences and use of BIM. To be able to differentiate between the different ways BIM is used in their projects. 2.7Validity, reliabilityand transparencyAccording to Leung (2015), validity in qualitative studies is about “appropriateness” of different tools, processes and data used in research. This means that validity refers to appropriateness of the chosen method to the study, among other aspects. The study includes both theoretical and empirical perspectives, which is an aspect thatraises the validity compared to only using one perspective. The selection of project managers to interview in this study was made to assure a validity, based on the factthat they were selected to create a diverse group with different levels of experience and age. In contrast, if the interviewees would have been a group on solely young relatively inexperienced project managers, answers might not have been as relevant. Apart from that, people working as professional construction project managers are the most equipped to provide answers relevant to the research questions due to the topic. However, the fact that they all work at the same company can have a negative impact on validity in the sense that it might give a misrepresented view of theopinions of client’s construction project managers in general. In quantitative research,reliability refers to the replicability of the study (Leung, 2015). If usingsameapproachand methods, the researchwill show similarresults. However, in a qualitative studyit is impossible to achieve exactly the same results. This is because the research is based on opinions, peoples’ own perspectivesand experiences. The reliability in qualitative research is needs to be conceptualized differently (Carcary, 2009). This is why transparency is importantin qualitative studies, to increase trust and credibility in the study among the readers (Moravcsik, 2014), when not being able to measure the reliability in the same way.Transparency in qualitative studies has three dimensions, according to Moravcsik (2014). The dimensions are data transparency, analytic transparency and production transparency. Data transparency is about giving the readers access to the data used in the empirical results. In this study,the transcribed interviewswhich represents the data is available for the readers upon request, as previously mentioned. This increases the data transparency. Transparency could be increased by giving the readers direct access to the data.However,this is considered to be inconvenient due to the fact that the data is most likely overwhelming to the normal readersince it is around 150 pages long.Analytic transparency refersto what accessreaders have to information about the data analysis. In this thesis this is dealt with byexplaining how the data analysis was made(2.6 Data analysis –Qualitative). Production transparency is about the methods tohow the production of empirical results was made.To give the readers access to 9information about how the empirical evidence was selected from the full data.Thishas to dowith confirmation bias and selection bias. In this thesis it was dealt with by analyzing the full results in stepsand coding the data, as previously described. It was done to make sure there were no selection bias, in contrast toif the basis for the analysis instead would have beenthe first 5 interviewswhere additional findings would have been added later. This could have resulted in unconscious confirmation bias, due to confirming the findings one had already stated. 3Literature studyIn this chapter, the previous research in the fieldis presented. This is made to set a base for empirical study.3.1ICT in construction, opinions and changing workAccording to a study made by Jacobsson and Linderoth (2012), ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is essential in daily work for most professionals in the construction industry. How ICT is used is depending on the occupational groups regarding differences in typesof work tasks and context, where managers uses ICT mainly for control of project performance (Jacobsson and Linderoth, 2012). Thereis evidence that the use of IT-tools is extensive, although perhaps not used to theirfull potential. There are still high expectations on IT-tools and the advantages they bring (Gustavssonet al.,2012). Wikforss and Löfgren, (2007) states that there is a need for effective communication and quick access to information in both design and production stages of construction. This is considered to be a project management dilemma. A tool being used tohandle this is digital project platforms, which is an ICT based tool designed to give immediate access to shared documents and dynamic communication on the platform webpage (Wikforss and Löfgren, 2007). A study of four project platforms(PNet, Projektstruktur, Projektplatsen/Project placeand Byggnet) was made where multiple users were interviewed,includinga fewproject managers.It was found that many considered the platforms to be inefficient and too complicated. Many communication functions remained unused and most of the time, the project platforms were only used to store documents as opposed to the idea of using them for dynamic communication. The platforms were also considered to be time consuming when logging on and searching for documents. Anotherthing that was mentioned is that tagging the documents with the right metadata, upload and structure them correctly was a complex task in practice according to respondents (Löfgren, 2006). For the project manager, it is no longer possible to decide what information is given at what time to the project team members when using project platforms. All have equal access to information that is constantly changing based on the fact that team members upload documents continuously. Flexibility and general understanding of the project is reduced using these platforms. Also for the project manager it gets more difficult to controlproject teammembers’perspectives on the project, since theybase their image of the project on information they acquire from the platform (Wikforss and Löfgren, 2007). 10However, as Formanet al., (2014)concludes in a study about how informationandtechnology changesthework, some implications are only possible to observe after sufficient amount of time has passed. Meaning further changes of work processes and practice could possibly occur over time. New ways to work digitally also brings new possibilities, such as working together despiteproblems due to location. In a study of the Indian construction industry, where project teams are generally geographically separated, Ahujaet al., (2010)concluded that the adoption of ICT is most beneficial when it comes to create effective communication in that specific setting. Opinions of digital technology has also been studied as something that affects the digital implementation. Negative attitudes and negative word of mouth are affecting the adoption of digital innovations negatively, which implies thatincreasing the consumers positive attitude of a digital toolcould be effective for adoption (Jahanmir and Cavadas, 2018). This requires leadership, and in a project, the leader is typically the project manager (Zulch, 2014). However, in a study of the user perceptions of the use of ICT in the Swedish construction industry, it was concluded that the users are quite happy with the kind of ICT that is used, and does not seemto be interested in further implementation (Jacobsson and Linderoth, 2012)There are different kinds and types of leadership. According to a study by Oberer and Erkollar (2018), it could be more important to have a leadership style more focused on the human side of the organization in leading digital work. This could increase productivity and efficiency compared to other styles with the same prerequisites.3.2BIM and project managementIn a study by Rokooei (2015), a comparison was made between the main aspects of BIM and knowledge areas of project management. It was concluded that the project manager is one of the best roles fit to utilize BIM. He also suggests that BIM can be viewedas a managerial tool instead of a technical one in construction projects. This suggestion was made due to similarities that were recognized in his study between the project manager, being the heart in decision making within projects, and BIM in the construction process. He also argues that to understand similarities between the project management role and BIM, it requires an understanding and knowledge of the concept and experience in working with BIM. Hoseiniet al., (2019), also studied the comparison between BIM and project management body of knowledge. The conclusion was that the uses, influences and benefits of BIM relates well to project management body of knowledge. He argues that BIM can support and positively affect time and cost management, plus other fields such as risks and resources of the project. Working with BIM can therefore help with achieving the project goals (Hoseini et al., 2019). In another article about the effects of BIM capabilities knowledge management areas in the construction industry, BIM is expressed as a project management methodology. All the different BIM capabilities are concluded to have positive effects on the recognized standard project management body of knowledge(Rezahoseini et al., 2018). Brydeet al.,(2013), argues that theaspect ofcost management is the most positively influenced by BIM in construction project management. However, several other aspects are 11also benefitted by the use of BIM in construction project management. Time, communication, coordination improvement and quality are positively affected (Brydeet al., 2013). This is depending on the kind of BIM used in the projects. With a more extensive and integrated BIM use, benefits to the construction schedule management is more noticeable(Liet al.,2017).When it comes to sustainability, working with BIM can improve these aspects of a project as well. Clients and key stakeholders often have a demand for sustainable projects built with sustainable methods. This requires an early involvement and cooperation of participants in the project, which can be reached with an integrated design approach through using BIM(Brydeet al., 2013). Using BIM to this extent will only be reached if companies invest in their staff in form of BIM education and training, since the people working with it will need to adjust and adopt working practices to suit the method(Brydeet al., 2013).Azhar (2011)also argues for the need of increased collaboration within project teamsto achieve as manybenefitsas possible using BIM, buthe does not sustain the idea that there will be a high cost of implementing BIM in the long run. In a study of 10 different projects,conducted by analyzing detailed cost data when using BIM, a positive return on investment (ROI)was concluded in all projects. With a range from 140% to 39,900%of positive ROI, the benefit of implementing BIM is concluded to be clear. The large range is explained by the differences in scope of used BIM methods. Based on the results from this study,heargues that increased use of BIM will hopefully benefit collaboration, reduce fragmentation in the construction industry, will gradually lead to improved project performance and reduced costs(Azhar, 2011).Just like Azharargues, Chen and Luo (2014)concluded that BIM aids theproject participants to better comprehend the quality process and collaborate more effectivelywith visualized data format.They also argued that BIM is beneficial when it comes to design quality, due to conflict elimination and reducing the need for alterations and additional work. These conclusions were based on a case study ofthe Wuhan International EXPO Center, where a 4D BIM application for quality control was used during the construction phase(Chen and Luo, 2014). According to Hartmann et al. (2012)the implementation of BIM tools to aid the work of construction management organization are considered to be a problematic task. He suggests the implementation would benefit from a technology pull perspective, rather than a technology push. Push and pull in this context haveto do with a theory about implementing innovation. Technology push is when science and technologyinfluence the market to change, and technology pull (or demand pull)is when the market influence the science and technology being implemented.The argument Hartmann et al.(2012)suggestsbased on two case studies where technology pull was used. The conclusion is that functionality ofBIM based software applications can work well with established project management methods(Hartmann et al., 2012).BIM has aquitesubstantialimpact on the industry, and many changes to projects and working processes,as stated above. Thismost likely affects the roleof project managers. However, there are research suggesting that construction project managers’ knowledge of 12BIM is somewhat insufficient, which can result in problems with understanding the plans (Fazli et al., 2014).As can be gathered, the aspects of BIM are often seen as very positive and beneficial. However, there are studies implicatingthat there is a hype when it comes to BIM, and that it might not be as positive as studies make it seem.Productivity has been declining over the last years in the construction industry. Stephen Fox suggests in his study “Getting real about BIM” (2014), that getting more real about BIM and having more critical descriptions of it would improve understanding of BIM. He argues that a critical description of BIM can be more holistic, and bases this argument on a case study (Fox, 2014). 134Theoretical frameworkIn this chapter, the theoretical concepts used to gain an understanding of the empirics are presented and described.A few of the concepts are shortly discussedas well, to assure the relevance of them to this study.4.1Construction project managementIn construction project management, one of the main tasks is to take stakeholders demands and interests into considerationwhen making decisions to ensure project success (Olander, 2007). The goal of construction project management is to reach project success, which is often measured by three aspects. Time, cost and quality. These three concepts make up the well-known theory of the Iron triangle, also known as the triple constraint. This means that construction project managers’task is to make sure the project is delivered on time, expenses kept within budget, and the quality of the finished project is according to agreement (Pollacket al.,2018).4.2Leadership and management Leadership and management are not the same, although leadership is an important part of management. “Leadership is a part of management, is the ability of convincing the others to search to achieve defined targets, gives coherence to a group and motivates it to achieve goals”(Răducan and Răducan, 2014). There are many definitions and descriptions of leadership. However the key elements can be described as following (Derue and Ashford, 2010; Oberer and Erkollar, 2018): -Leader and Follower:A leader cannot be a leader without followers. Followers are the ones being influenced by a leader and possibly gives input to the leader.-Influence:As an effective leader, it is important to be able to influence and motivate others. To communicate ideas and gaining acceptance, support and willingness to implement them.-Organizational objectives:To create a common goal and vision and to guide the followers in thinking about organizational objectives. -People:It is evident that being a leader is about leading people. Good leaders are helpful and likes to lead and advise the followers towards ashared goal. -Change:Influencing and setting goals are related to change. Leaders should lead followers in change that the organization needs to adapt in global environments that change fast. These key elements involve a fair amount of soft skills (people skills)(Derue and Ashford, 2010). The leadership ability and approach of how to motivate and convince people highly depends on communication skills and the ability to assess the situation and surrounding environment(Zulch, 2014). Further, the key elements rely on technical skills and decision-making skills of the leader. The technical skills are referring to the capability to use the 14correct methods and techniques to perform a task. Decision-making skills are about problem-solving (Derue and Ashford, 2010). According to Mumford et al. (2000), leaders should be able to identify problems in the organization and formulate solutions to them. 4.3Information communication technology 4.3.1How actors use ICTAdriaanseet al.,(2010)have developed a theoretical model that explains how different actors use ICT in construction projects.It was developed by comparingthree other ICT models about influenceand adoption of ICT, the unified theory of acceptanceand use of technology, the theory acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior and recognizing the missing elements.The modelcontains the following four key categories:•Personal motivation: Refers to the perceivedadvantages and disadvantages of ICT use and perceived time pressure when using them.•External motivation:Refersto what extent the actors are forced by other actors, which is connected to contractual arrangements about ICT use and the presence of a requesting actor. •Knowledge skills: Refersto what degree actors know how to use ICT tools. With limited skills, the actors themselves limit the use of ICT.•Acting opportunities: Refers to what extent ICT can be used in the intended way.This has to do with alignment between working practices and ICT, and the availability of the actual ICT-tools.This model is used in this thesis as a base for how the project team members useICT-tools,which in return can explain how a project managercan affect afavorable adoptionof ICT-tools within the team. 4.3.2Building Information ModelingBuilding Information Modeling (BIM) isa type of information communication technology, used for managing construction projects efficiently and effectively. It originates from Building Description Systems (BDS), that was introduced in 1975 by Charles Eastman. Over the years, the concept has developed in to BIM, which now exists with a vast amount of different definitions to it (Aryaniet al., 2014). As Khosrowshahi (2017, p.50)states, the two extremes are that BIM is one hand ”purely a technical enabler in form of a sophisticated software”, or on the other “it offers a philosophical framework that offers a paradigm shift within the construction sector.”In this thesis BIM refers to the definition by Succaret al., (2012, p.120), that BIM is“aset of interracing policies, processes and technologies that generate a methodology to manage the essential building design and project data in digital format throughout the building’s lifecycle”. 154.3.3Bew-Richards model for BIM maturityThe Bew-Richards model (Figure 1) is built on the concept that the higherBIM maturity, the higher the lifecycle management and integration in the processes of construction. It was introduced in 2008 (Bew et al., 2008, inSuccaret al., 2012)and consists of four levels, level 0 up to level 3. Level 0 is almost no BIM maturity at all, and level 3 is the highest with different kinds of integrated BIM and where lifecycle management is implemented (British Standards Institution, 2010, 2011; Khosrowshahi, 2017).Figure 1, Bew-Richards BIM maturity model(British Standards Institution, 2011, p.16). Pictured with permission from the copyright owners and authors Mark Bew and MervynRichards1.The definitions of the levels are the following (British Standards Institution, 2011, p.16-17):“Level 0:Unmanaged CAD probably 2D, with paper (or electronic paper) as the most likely data exchange mechanism. Level 1: Managed CAD in 2 or 3D format using BS1192:2007 with a collaboration tool providing a common data environment, possibly some standard data structures and formats. Commercial data managed by standalone finance and cost management packages with no integration. Level 2:Managed 3D environment held in separate discipline “BIM” tools with attached data. Commercial data managed by an Enterprise Resource Planner (ERP). Integration on the basis of proprietary interfaces or bespoke middleware could be regarded as “pBIM” (proprietary). Theapproach may utilise 4D programme data and 5D cost elements as well as feed operational systems. 1Permission granted from Mervyn Richards the 26thof May 2020, and from Mark Bew the 29thof May 2020. 16Level 3: Fully open process and data integration enabled by “web services” compliant with the emerging IFC/IFD standards, managed by a collaborative model server. Could be regarded as iBIM or integrated BIM potentially employing concurrent engineering processes.”Since it is a British model, the definitions to the different levelsincludes British standards that are not commonly used in Sweden. In short, the levels can be explained as steps toward integration and lifecycle management. Level 0 as no BIM maturitywith information in form of 2D drawings, level 1 solely focus on the geometrical 2D or 3D model, level 2 focus on collaboration over disciplines including libraries and perhaps other tools such as cost-and time information, and lastly level 3 as a working process with focus on integration and life cycle management. Bew-Richards theory of BIM-maturity is from 2008.However, it is still used and discussed up to date (Olawumi and Chan, 2018, 2019; Jiang et al., 2019; Nývlt and Novotný, 2019). Other BIM maturity models, such as the Multifunctional BIM Maturity Model by Liang et al., (2016), are too complex in this study for a quick self-assessment among theproject managers,since it involves many aspects and criteriaordered in three sub domains, totalingin 21ratingsbetween stage 0 and 3,that are combined to a total score. This means that the model requiresmore knowledge of details in how BIM is used in the project, which some project managers might not have since they have a more comprehensive role.In this thesis, the concept of Bew-Richards model of BIM maturity is used to assess what level of BIM is being used in different projects and what the interviewed project managershave experience of. Read Less