Add Thesis

Exploring the Potential of Crowdfunding for EV-charging Infrastructure Development

A Strategy for Collaborative Financing of EV Charging Points in Sweden

Written by Anton Brew, Olivia Zetterberg

Paper category

Master Thesis

Subject

Business Administration>Management

Year

2020

Abstract

Thesis: Electric vehicle charging infrastructure landscape In this section, the prospects of electric vehicle charging infrastructure landscape are covered. It covers the electric vehicle market, policies and regulations, consumer profiles, descriptions of technical factors, user preferences, as well as the procurement process and financial aspects. 2.1 The electrification transition among countries with sustainable mobility transition is an important issue among countries. 8 mentioned the problem of transportation between countries. , Highlydependentonfossilfuels, anditsdomestictransportsectorstandsforone-thirdofallCO2emissionsinSweden (SwedishTransportAgency, 2019) .Thetransitionintomoresustainablealternativesoftransportmeanshasthepotentialtoenhanceaparadigmshiftinfuturemarketsofenergyandmobility, whichwillbroadenthepositiveeffectsonthecurrentenvironmentalissues (TurtonandMoura, 2008) .Afundamentalshiftalongseveraldimensionsisneeded, wherecharginginfrastructure, userpractices, technologicalenhancement, andorganizational change is only the phenomenon of concerned.ThisthesisfocusesonEV-charginginfrastructure AF EW's, andthepotentialofcollaborativelydevelopingit, whichareaspectsofabroadercontextoftheEVtransition.TheEV-andcharginginfrastructuredeploymentcan ,Asmentioned,beseenasachicken and-eggdilemma,whereconcernsofbuildinghighvolumesofchargingpointsfora smallnumberofvehiclesarequestioned (Transport and Environment, 2018). At the same time, psychological barrier stopurchasing electrified vehicles are usually linked to thelackofanadequatecharginginfrastructure (Egnérand Trosvik, 2018).The generalcomplexityofsocio-technicaltransitions, aswellasnetworkexternalitiesofthe mentioneddilemma, areasaffectthisparticular development, the same, the development of the entire system. 2.1.1 Current status and EV MarketAstheEV-charginginfrastructuredevelopmentishighlydependentontheEV market outlook, itis essentialtoevaluateitsprogression. Duetotheurgentneedtoaddresstransportation-,fossiloiluse-,andCO2emissionissues,theinterestofEVpenetrationhasbecomesubstantialduringthepastdecade; Targets and announcements by car manufacturers (Noel et al., 2020). The academic literature has invested a lot of effort to solve its adoption barriers, because deployment is an important part of the transition to the social technology of decarbonized transportation, as well as pollution that is not in line with local health 20. Asforthedevelopment, the numberofelectricvehiclesintheNordiccountrieshasbeengrowingsteadilysince2010.Bytheendof2017,itreachedupto250000electrifiedcars,andtheregionhasoneofthehighest ratiosofEVspercapitaintheworld 2.1.1.1 for exciting EV deploymentToenableEVmarketdeployment, policysupportisessentialasitpromotestheuptakeofEVstobemoreappealingforconsumers (EgnérandTrosvik, 2018) .Purchasingchoicesarehighlyinfluencedbypolicymeasuresthatimpacttheupfrontpriceofavehicle, includingtaxesandregistrationfees (IEA, 2018) .NorwayhasbecomeagloballeaderwiththehighestEVmarketshare.Thecountryisapioneerinthismanner, astheincreasehasbeenpushedbyregulatoryactionstoenhancetheEVvalueproposition (IEA, 2019). It procedure can be studied in order to attain an understanding of how incentive scan be used to enhance the development in other countries, asawide range of studies suggestions that the implementation of national-, as well as local policy instruments shave a positive impact on EVadoption (for example, Merchant et al., 2016; hertzchula, and 2014); AsforSwedishincentives, anationaltargetthatimpliesafossilindependentvehiclefleetby2030isdetermined (SOU, 2013: 84) .Purchaserebatesforenergy-efficientvehicleswerenationallyintroducedin2006informsofregistrationtaxbenefitsandrebates, aswellastaxcredits.Tenyearslater, SwedendifferentiatedthesubsidyforBEVsandPHEVS, withavalueofSEK40000respectivelySEK20000.Thispurchasesubsidyappliedforvehicleswithatailpipeemissionlowerthan50gCO 2 / kmandwasreferredtoasthe "supermiljöbilspremie" (IEA, 2018) .TherebatewasavailableforbothprivateandcompanycarsandthetaxationbenefitsonprivateuseofcompanycarswerealsolowerforEVsthanforICEvehicles.ThedifferentiatedpurchasesubsidydidnothaveasignificanteffectontherelativeBEVorPHEVshareinSwedensEVmarket.Anexplanationofthiscouldbethetaxreliefthatisavailableforcompanycars, aswellasthepopularconsumerpreferencestowardslargePHEVs (IEA, 2018) ". "Supermiljöbilspremie" was replaced by a bonus system in 2018. With the entry into force of a motive BEVs and PHEVs may change the share distribution; asit encourageshigherBEVshares.AnderssonandKulin (2019) arguethatthebonus-malussystemandtheimplementationof'environmentalzones'willpositivelycontributetotheincreaseofelectric2vehiclesinthecountry.However, itsentryeffectonthemarketisyettoberecognizedaswellasthepotentialforfuturepoliciesandincentives.Asforthefuture, Figure2below, demonstratesthedistributionofanswersfromSwedishpoliticiansregardingtheirviewonEVdeploymentinthe challenges and contribute to the national 2.1.1.2 About EV UptakeThemosthighlightedbarriersoftheEVpenetrationintheacademicliteraturearetechnicaloreconomicfactors, such as the lack of charging facilities such as charging stations (Noor et al., 2020).Additionally, it is arguedthatthedeploymentis strongly dependent oncustomeracceptance, wherethebarriersandconcernsarehighlyinterconnectedandcommonlyassociatedwithconsumerknowsandeva ) And other issues are examples of restricting the large-scale adoption of electric vehicles (Egbue and Long, 2012). Read Less