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Exploring Branding During Exportation:

A Multi-case Study of SMEs in the B2B Sector

Written by A. G. Ngwa, M. Z. Awan

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Marketing & Sales




Master Thesis: Brand Brand originates from the consumer market. Brands are regarded as market signals that focus on end consumers, helping them save time by ensuring a certain level of value, shaping their decisions, and meeting their specific needs through products (Doyle, 1990 ). Barich and Kotler (1991) describe a brand as "a name, term, logo, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, designed to identify the goods and services of a seller or a group of sellers, and compare them with the goods and services of other sellers. Services are distinguished. Competitors. Therefore, a brand is an identifier of a certain entity, and its concept is that a brand name enables consumers to confidently identify a product from another product. Brand value is embodied in the concept of brand equity From the perspective of consumers, brand equity can be seen as a kind of utility, loyalty or a clear and differentiated image, which cannot be explained by product attributes. From the perspective of a company, brand equity can be seen as The incremental cash flow generated for a product with a brand name does not have a brand name (Ailawadi, Lehmann, and Neslin 2003) compared to the cash flow that will be generated. Similarly, Aaker (1996) defines brand equity as the difference between the brand, its name or A set of brand assets and liabilities associated with a symbol. These assets and liabilities increase or decrease the value provided by the product or service to the company and/or corporate consumers. Aaker (1991) also proposed four dimensions of brand equity, such as: Brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association and brand loyalty. 2.2.1 Branding in the international market It is more challenging to combine foreign markets and export commodities to brand. Johanson & Mattsson (1988) emphasized that exports are important for small and medium-sized enterprises in three dimensions. The importance of enterprises: expansion, penetration, and integration. In order to prevent their products from becoming commodities, companies hope to separate themselves from service, organizational brands, and product-level brands. For some time, authoritative buyers will consider the intangible and intangible quotations. The other gradually elusive part, despite the low cost and product quality (Douglas, Craig and Nijssen, 2001). Many industrial buying options are usually throwing. The decisive factor at this time can determine the brand’s perception of buyers. Some industrial buying Home buyers may care more about the brand than other buyers (Sanchez & Mahoney, 1996). A positive perception of the brand can lead to confidence in customers, thereby generating good brand loyalty and preference. In addition, brand equity is worth noting Factors that include brand loyalty, brand quality, brand preference and high brand awareness. In other words, brand equity is regarded as the overall performance of the brand. 2.2.2 Importance of the brand in the industrial market Brands in the industrial market must be seen as transferring advantages to different key players in the organization in order to put resources into it. Even if the company intends to enter foreign industrial markets, it is more challenging. Regarding organizations that invest resources in brand building, various advantages have been discovered. Cretu & Brodie (2007) found that brands have a positive impact on the nature of products or services. It is also seen as giving a product identity and as a unique and stable brand image (Michell, Ruler and Reast, 2001). In addition, even in foreign markets, a strong brand is required and required, which may be included in the quotation and make the company request special value (Michell et al., 2001; Low and Blois, 2002; Ohnemus, 2009). The increase in demand for branded products poses a serious threat to competing products (Low and Blois, 2002; Ohnemus, 2009). In any case, the assumption that competing products will be rejected suggests that there is only one solid brand on the market, or that it is more expensive to buy a different brand, which may not be true. It is recommended that products or services be branded, and interactive communication will be recognized and more active (Michell et al., 2001; Low and Blois, 2002; Ohnemus, 2009). When a strong brand is created, it is likely to be based and grow (Low & Blois, 2002). Hutton (1997) found that a positive evaluation of a brand's product characteristics will be transferred to another similar brand's product characteristics. A strong brand can build the organization's capabilities in the distribution system and open the door to licensing (Low and Blois, 2002; Ohnemus, 2009). It may also increase barriers to entry for other organizations (Michell et al., 2001). When an organization has a strong brand, the value of the organization may be higher (Low & Blois, 2002). Advertisers of industrial brands may see increased customer satisfaction (Low & Blois, 2002) and increased loyalty (McQuiston, 2004). In the end, a strong B2B (business-to-business) brand is bound to be recommended (Hutton, 1997; Bendixen, Bukasa, and Abratt, 2004). In addition, branding helps reduce the risk and vulnerability of aliasing in the buying environment (Mudambi, 2002; Bengtsson and Servais, 2005; Ohnemus, 2009). .2.3 The role of brands in SMEs In SME literature, brands have been recognized and become an important factor (Boyle, 2003; Inskip, 2004; Krake, 2005; Wong & Merrilees, 2005). Read Less