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Climate Change Leadership in the eyes of Business

Written by Mathilde Lemaire

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Leadership




Master Thesis: By seeking to combine the actions of state and non-state actors (NSA) in the post-Paris Agreement, the “Paris Agreement” created a new governance structure, which some authors call “hybrid multilateralism”, and better Adapted to the current problem. (Kuyper, Linnell and Schroeder, 2018). "By adopting two different governance characteristics, this hybrid arrangement appeared in the Paris Agreement: state-led actions defined and regulated by the parties through their own Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), and UNFCCC’s coordination of transnational climate efforts. Work hard" (Kuyper, Linnér and Schroeder, 2018, p. 1f). Therefore, the Nationally Determined Contributions represent the voluntary commitments (UNFCCC, undated) of countries to respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the national level based on the resources of each country. NDC is not legally binding, but the process of tracking progress is (Bäckstrand et al., 2017). As Falkner (2016) pointed out, the agreement reversed the classic trend of countries adapting to international needs, because this time it is an international agreement consistent with domestic politics. Unlike the previous COP, the Paris Agreement has been able to integrate and involve new participants, such as commercial and non-state participants (see Box 1), recognizing the need for a hierarchical structure similar to the agreement, that is, choosing a mixed mix Body bottom-up and top-down actions (Bäckstrand et al., 2017). Therefore, NSAs are an integral part of the architecture because they are assigned different roles: • The supervisor of the NDC, by increasing its transparency and applying pressure to increase the ambition of the target every 5 years (Kuyper, Linnér and Schroeder, 2018 Years) (Bäckstrand et al., 2017); • Contributors and governance partners responsible for monitoring, verifying and reporting implementation work (Kuyper, Linnér and Schroeder, 2018); • Experts (Bäckstrand et al., 2017). Among other things, their actions aim to make countries aware of their responsibility for their commitments through the process of naming and shaming (Kuyper, Linnér, and Schroeder, 2018). To help them, they will be able to rely on senior champions who will oversee their efforts (Kuyper, Linnér and Schroeder, 2018). Box 1: Who is the National Security Agency and what is the National Security Agency? As a metonymy, NSA is defined by its representatives, which include economic actors such as enterprises and trade unions, as well as state actors of different sizes (regional local governments and municipalities) and civil society (Bäckstrand et al., 2017). P. 562) (Kuyper, Linnér and Schroeder, 2018, p. 1). This group of participants tried to transform the system from within through cooperative and competitive actions to participate in international governance (Nasiritousi, Hjerpe, and Buhr, 2014). The business and industry non-governmental organization (BINGO) represents a special form of business organization (Vormedal, 2008) whose role is to “create and deploy technology, finance, investment, trade and capacity building, participate in international mechanisms and other ways to promote mitigation “And adaptation” (cited from Nasiritousi, Hjerpe and Linnér in 2010 by the International Chamber of Commerce, 2016, p. 121). In fact, they are by definition non-profit organizations, but their members are for-profit companies (mainly multinationals) (Vormedal , 2008). Their main focus is not global public goods, but private interests (Boström and Hallström, 2010). Therefore, they seek to influence regional and international decision-making and the policy process of agenda setting and mitigation actions (Nasiritousi, Hjerpe and Linnér, 2016). The goal of bingo is to gain visibility, legitimacy and authority as a political participant on the international stage (Vormedal, 2008), and to maintain this in the political arena that is normally closed to companies Status, which allows them to express their opinions in negotiations (Vormedal, 2008). Through more effective and direct communication with decision makers (Vormedal, 2008), they have an influence that cannot be ignored. The aspect of influence talks about influence. Some authors are faced with the daunting task of defining this concept. For Knoke (1990) and Corell and Betsill (2001) (quoted from Vormedal, 2008, p.44), it is "a participant (A) intentionally transmits information to The process of another participant (B), thereby modifying what B will do in the absence of such information", while for others, "influence is defined as the activity of actor A on the behavior of actor B Causes the expected impact", that is, the induced relationship between B's behavior being changed by A's behavior (Vormedal, 2008). In my case, I am interested in the mutual influence of companies and policy makers in the context of global climate governance. See Looking at the impact of companies on policy makers, it is clear that BINGO has more than one rope to oppose output. For example, this can take the form of creating and using a network established with decision makers to participate in agenda setting so as to be able to contribute to the political process. Contribute to influence the design and implementation of new norms, systems and ideas. (Kolleck, 2010) (Vormedal, 2008). For this, BINGO must meet certain conditions, such as being able to enter and participate in the official negotiation arena, and with the delegation that approves the text Possibility to get in touch; they must also have not only financial resources, but also intangible resources. Read Less