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It’s time to TikTok

Exploring Generation Z’s motivations to participate in #Challenges

Written by J. Ahlse, F. Nilsson & N. Sandström

Paper category

Bachelor Thesis


Business Administration>Communication & Media




Bachelor Thesis: Introduction to the reference frame With the introduction of the purpose, research questions, definitions and definitions of this article, the reference frame is as follows. It contains a detailed analysis of the existing literature on viral marketing and UGC in the context of social media, with a focus on TikTok. The author discussed the history, possibility, emergence, and related key ideas of UGC, and introduced the research gaps in the motivation behind the creation of UGC on the emerging social media platform TikTok. Since then, the concept of #challenges has been elaborated, and it is one of TikTok's main UGC sources. After discussing UGC, I will introduce its relationship with content creation motivation, focusing on UGT. After reviewing the existing literature, the researchers then proposed a preliminary model of the six most prominent motivational factors applicable to the social media platform TikTok. 2.2 The method of reference frame Although the concept of #challenges and the social platform TikTok are new, the basic working principle behind them is not. These concepts are derived from previously established academic concepts. Therefore, in order to lay a solid foundation for understanding modern concepts and their sources, both old and new academic research are used. Researchers use a series of databases to systematically collect secondary data in the form of literature mainly from Scopus, Google Scholar, and Primo. The keywords used to collect literature are "viral marketing", "user-generated content", "Gen Z", "TikTok", "motivation", "use and satisfaction theory" and "challenge". In order to establish the highest degree of relevance and quality, the journal has benchmarked against the ABS list and their respective impact factors. This provides a legitimacy basis for the research, because the article discussed as a frame of reference is very important to the end user. It should be pointed out that due to its novelty, the validity and reliability of TikTok and #challenges research may be problematic in terms of its academic accuracy. Therefore, the author is forced to use some non-academic sources that are otherwise deemed inappropriate to anchor the upcoming TikTok discussion in the existing debate. However, because the platform and its content are rooted in viral marketing, a combination of credible sources is used. In some cases, old sources that are neither ABS lists nor from journals with impact factors are also used. These resources are kept to a minimum and used only in highly relevant situations. 2.3 Viral Marketing The explosive growth of social media has become a sign of the rise of Web 2.0. Web 2.0 describes the evolution of the Internet and describes the modern Internet as a change from static web pages to UGC and the growth of social media (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Although difficult to define, social media and platforms often have similar characteristics and are identified as platforms that represent the ideology and technical foundation of Web 2.0. Their use is through UGC (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010; Okazaki and Taylor, 2013) . Therefore, in recent years, digital viral marketing technology has attracted great attention from marketers due to its simple idea of ​​using social networks to quickly raise awareness of products and services (Long & Wong, 2014). Viral marketing is a relatively new concept that dates back to 1996, when Jeffrey Rayport first introduced the term, and was subsequently popularized by Steve Jurvetson and Tim Draper articles in Business 2.0 magazine (Jurvetson & Draper, 1998) in 1998. It is based on word of mouth (WoM) marketing, which has been studied since the late 1960s (Arndt, 1967). ViralMarketing uses the principles of WoM: attractive promotions or products are passed between consumers, and advertising changes from impersonal to personal (Wilde, 2013). Viral marketing on social media leverages the power of electronic word of mouth (eWoM) and spreads it through likes, shares, or public comments. It is widely debated which factors are the decisive motivations and contributors behind the virality (Eckler & Bolls, 2011). Known influencing factors are: emotional attachment to content, whether the content is positive or negative, and internal and external factors (Berger & Milkman, 2012; Zhao & Renard, 2018). Viral marketing has had a huge impact on the organization's use of modern communication channels and technologies. Essentially, viral marketing initially targeted a limited number of users by seeding content and providing sharing incentives. Users are usually opinion leaders on their respective platforms, and then distribute these content through sharing, co-creation, or their platform allowing them to distribute the content to their audiences. If completed successfully, the seed content should spread exponentially (Morgan, 2011). Viral marketing can spread in different ways on different platforms. Morgan (2011) believes that the future of the industry is “marketing with people, not targeting them” (page 11). This is one of the factors that complicates viral marketing. Read Less