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Adopting CS towards International Hotels' B2B customers in international markets

A Qualitative study in B2B context

Written by Abeer Alzahar, Sarah Tariq

Paper category

Bachelor Thesis


Business Administration>General




Bachelor Thesis: Conceptualize corporate sustainability (CS) 2.1.1. Corporate sustainability and the triple bottom line approach to corporate social responsibility or sustainability means that these companies are committed to achieving mutually beneficial goals for all stakeholders (such as employees, communities, the environment, suppliers, and the government) (Xu and Gursoy, 2015). In the early stages of the research (see Section 1.1), CS was considered to be the “ultimate goal” of companies that aim to be socially responsible. CSR belongs to the category of CS, however, it is a crucial aspect that needs to be practiced by companies aiming to successfully implement CS (Lo, 2010). CSR will be further elaborated in subsequent studies (see section 2.2). According to several authors, corporate sustainability (CS) has been divided into three sub-categories; (1) environmental sustainability, (2) social sustainability, and (3) economic sustainability (Xu and Gursoy) , 2015). Amini and Bienstock (2014) describe the term corporate sustainability as a company that aims to become or maintain long-term sustainability and should take into account all the aforementioned environmental, social, and economic dimensions. In addition, Elkington (2004) described the same concept in his triple bottom line approach to corporate sustainability. Wempe and Kaptein (2002) elaborated a triple bottom line approach centered on the three Ps, that is, the company's profits, personnel (stakeholders) and the planet on which it operates. The triple bottom line approach shows that if an organization is to succeed in long-term sustainability, it needs them to deal with all three dimensions of sustainability at the same time, rather than just focusing on one of them in the short term. In addition, in the academic literature, these dimensions are said to be interrelated and have a positive impact on each other. For this reason, an organization cannot just focus on its economy 2.1.2. The "triple bottom line" model of social sustainability is to explain and prove that it promotes economic growth while maintaining social inclusion and reducing environmental impact (Corantonio and Dixon, 2011). Social sustainability is one of the three categories that deal with the triple bottom line of social impact (Wempe and Kaptein, 2002; Colantonio and Dixon, 2011). According to Longoni and Cagliano, “Social sustainability refers to actively supporting the protection and creation of skills and the ability of future generations to promote health and support equal and democratic treatment to achieve a good quality of life in the company’s internal and external environments” (Longoni and Cagliano, 2015, p. 218). Social sustainability is regarded as an essential element of sustainable development because it has gained more and more recognition. It has also received political and government Include in the sustainable development agenda. 2.3 The importance of corporate social responsibility and B2B relationships in the IMP group theory The IMP group defines business relations as a complex mixture of exchange processes and adaptive attitudes between companies through business interactions (Proença and Castro, 2007). "Business network" is a term used by the IMP team to express efforts to create awareness to change and improve the structure used through relationship interaction. These interactions are seen as the core of the management business (Ford and Mouzas, 2013). Ford and Håkansson stated, “As the activities, resources and participants related to different companies continue to adapt to each other, the evolution of this correlation structure also involves IMP research.” (Ford and Håkansson, 2013, p.1019). As shown in Figure 2 below, members of the IMP team pointed out that the establishment of a relationship relies on establishing a network between buyers and sellers through a resource and activity transaction (ARA) model (Baxter, 2012). Both buyers and sellers have resources that help build relationships, which can be information or tangible resources (ibid.). The ARA model consists of three main factors, namely activities, resources, and participants. This process is used as a key aspect of the B2B relationship (Lenney and Easton, 2009; Ford and Håkansson, 2013). Business interaction involves not only the communication process between companies, but also the fulfillment of commitments that lead to long-term relationships (Lenney and Easton, 2009; Ford and Håkansson, 2013). IMP researchers focus on business relationships that play an important role for participants. Usually, the interactions in these relationships are intensive, and a long-term approach is used between the participants' activities and a large combination of resources, thereby establishing strong connections and coordination between them (Ford and Håkansson, 2013). The participants in these interactions form a kind of meeting to discuss important cases and issues. These interactions can bring financial benefits to these participants, which is not applicable when individual participants use their resources and activities alone (Ford and Håkansson, 2013). Most managers of a large number of companies are very concerned about the formation of these interactions and economic interdependence. On the other hand, it should be understandable that these long-term investments in these relationships cannot prevent problems and competition between them. But the main focus and goals of relationships and cooperation, agreements, and reciprocity between companies allow the business environment to be described as stable interdependence and adaptability (Ford and Hakkansen, 2013). Read Less