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Mission accomplished?

Measures of Success and Critical Success Factors in Startup Project Management

Written by P. Jussila, K. Wenderholm

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Management




Master Thesis: Projects Looking back on human history, it is easy to see that projects have always been a popular and common way of organizing to achieve the expected goals or results (Packendorff, 1995, p. 319; Cicmil, Hodgson, Lindgren & Packendorff, 2009, Page 80). However, projects are not just projects, many different types of projects can be distinguished. The literature usually treats projects and project management as "homogeneous, universal and unique phenomena" (Lindgren & Packendorff, 2011, p. 52), but these two fields also show great internal variability (Cicmil et al., 2009). , Pp. 80-81). As already mentioned, in the past few decades, as projects have become a more common way of organizing across all sectors and industries, interest in projects and project management has been increasing (Lindgren & Packendorff, 2011, p. 51 ). Although sometimes highly praised and sometimes highly criticized, projects and project management have been widely accepted as “natural, self-explanatory and indispensable” (Hodgson & Cicmil, 2006, p. 3). There are many reasons why projects have become an important part of today's enterprises. One of the reasons is that our social reforms continue to accelerate, constantly creating different needs and requiring different latest solutions. A constantly changing environment requires flexibility, and the old, standardized, bureaucratic structure can no longer provide this flexibility. Since many current products and services are usually very complex and specific, it usually requires a very unique process to achieve the desired result or completed process (Ekstedt et al., 1999, Lindgren & Packendorff, 2011, pp. 52-53). This view believes that projects are very task-specific and time-specific, and it seems to provide a high degree of control to avoid problems that more "classic" organizational structures must deal with, such as slow response to required changes (Lindgren & Packendorff , 2011, p. 52). Projects are seen as a temporary structured process of social interaction, aiming to contribute something new to the environment in which they once appeared (Ekstedt et al., 1999, Lindgren & Packendorff, 2011, pp. 52-53). Of course, people should be aware that the formal project period does not cover the entire process (the idea is usually generated before the formal project, and the spread to the environment usually occurs at a later time), but this is different from the project (Lindgren & Packendorff , 2011). Page 54). The life cycle of a project usually follows a development model called the project life cycle, which includes the development model; this model has been widely regarded as the process group identified in the PMBOK guidelines: start, plan, execute, monitor and close (Kerzner, 2009 , Page 44). 2.2 Project management Due to the basic nature and ubiquity of change-related projects in many business environments today, project management is an important concept in the field of business management. Project management represents all the processes involved in the entire project life cycle. The Project Management Institute (PMI, 2014) defines project management as "the effective and efficient application of knowledge, skills, and technology to execute projects." Project management is also defined as "the process of controlling the realization of project goals. Using the existing organizational structure and resources, it seeks to manage the project through the application of a series of tools and technologies without adversely affecting the company's daily operations" (Munns & Bjeirmi, 1996, p. 81). Project management is the time frame and continuity of projects as an internal phenomenon of the organization. Although the project definition is a temporary part, the project is usually also part of the plan and project portfolio, all of which are in line with the organization's strategy. In some contemporary business environments, organizations may have been described as project-based organizations, where the company’s revenue is based on project activities and production is dependent on the project (Kuura et al., 2014, p. 223; Lundin & Hällgren’s Packendorff, 2014, p. Page 251). For this type of organization, the organizational strategy needs to be aligned with the project-specific strategy. Maylor (2010, pp. 51-52) pointed out that the company strategy in a project-oriented high-performance organization needs to be continuously recreated in a process that takes into account the organizational learning that occurs during portfolio management (collecting all Organized projects), programs (collections of single projects with a common ultimate goal), and single projects. As discussed in Chapter 2.2.2, the development of project success research shows that assessing the company’s project management and project success needs to be considered together with the overall concept of success in the project strategy: what the guidelines and directions do and how to do it from Obtain competitive advantage and value in the project (Poli & Shenhar, 2003, p. 232). It was previously suggested that the focus of the project is more long-term, while the focus of project management is short-term (Munns & Bjeirmi, 1996, p. 86). Due to the increasing importance of project portfolio, program and project strategy, a less engineering-oriented and more strategic project perspective has become a more important factor in project management (Winter et al., 2006a, p. 700) . Read Less