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The Customer Journey of Music Festival Attendees

A Swedish Customer Perspective

Written by Malin Karlsson, Thanh Huong Le

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Marketing & Sales




Master Thesis: Customer Journey The concept of customer behavior has received extensive attention from scholars (Howard & Sheth, 1969; Kardes, Cline, & Cronley, 2011; Pieters, 1993; Kotler, 1994, 2001; Kotler & Keller, 2012). According to Kardes et al. (2011, p.8), customer behavior “involves all consumer activities related to the purchase, use, and disposal of goods and services, including consumers’ emotional, psychological, and behavioral reactions, and these reactions perform, decide, or follow these activities” . This shows that customers deal with thoughts, feelings, and experiences before, during, and after consuming the product (ibid.). These activities can all be regarded as the end of the customer journey. As Skinner (2010) explained, the customer journey is the sum of different experiences that customers experience when integrating with a brand, product, or company. The term customer journey has been widely discussed and adopted in actual service management (Gerritsen et al., 2014; Rawson, Duncan, and Jones, 2013; Zomerdijk and Voss, 2010). Kankainen, Vaajakallio, Kantola, and Mattelmäki (2012, p.221) further describe the customer journey as "the process of experiencing service through different touch points from the customer's perspective." Visualization of customer journey concepts and usage, also known as customer journey maps (Stickdorn & Schneider, 2010). Crosier and Handford (2012) and Gerritsen et al. (2014) Think of customer journey maps as a way to check emotional reactions to products, goods, and services. As part of the product design process, it can be used to improve the customer experience (Steen, Manschot, and De Koning, 2011). Stickdorn and Zehrer (2012) illustrate the customer experience score for each touchpoint in customer journey visualization. Crosier and Handford (2012) explain customer experience based on emotional response scores as part of the customer journey map. Gleason et al. (2014) Treat customer journey processes and touch points as the source of customer experience. They proposed an abstract customer journey map as a guiding model for customer experience in the mall (Figure 1). According to Gerritsen et al. (2014), the customer journey summarizes customer needs, sub-processes and touch points. Each sub-process encapsulates potential touch points. When customers meet their needs, they are ready to enter the next phase of the customer journey. According to Gerritsen et al., the demand experienced by the customer. (2014) Yes; need positioning, need information, need to experience products, need to buy, need to pay, need to consume. Sub-processes are all actions taken by the customer to meet the needs that may arise in the customer journey. 2.2 Decision-Influencer Scholars have been studying the reasons why consumers decide to purchase specific products (Kardes et al., 2011; Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). By studying previous behavior, we can estimate the customer's future behavior (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). Faulin, Juan, Grasman, and Fry (2012) and Kotler and Armstrong (2010) discuss factors that may influence customer decisions. The decisions that customers make determine their behavior. They divided the influencing factors into three groups; personal, psychological and social factors (Juan et al., 2012; Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). 2.2.1 Personal factors Personal factors are attributes that identify an individual's living conditions (Falun et al., 2012). Barone and Miniard (2002) proposed several factors that can influence customer behavior and decision-making throughout the customer journey. These factors may be; age, gender, occupation, economic status, lifestyle and personality (ibid.). According to Engel et al. (2005), the purchase behavior of consumers changes according to different stages of life, because their tastes and preferences also change with the changes in the life cycle. Occupation and purchasing power also determine the purchase behavior of customers (Barone & Miniard, 2002). The level of income affects the customer's affordability and their perception of money (ibid.). Solomon (2004) showed that people with similar occupations and income levels tend to have common tastes and usually socialize with each other and share values ​​and ideas. Another important personal factor that affects the decision-making process may be the customer's lifestyle (Plummer, 1974). This expresses how a person thinks and acts (ibid.). The concept of lifestyle can be interpreted as a person's way of thinking and expressed by depicting the activities, interests, and opinions of the person interacting with the environment (Ramya and Mohamed Ali, 2016). It is composed of innate characteristics, current situation and past experience (Plummer, 1974). Juliusson, Karlsson, and Garling (2005) pointed out that past experience will affect the individual's future behavior. If the decision produces positive results, customers are more likely to act in a similar way and tend to avoid repeating past mistakes (ibid.). In addition, the personality of the individual also affects decision-making. Personality involves a set of dynamic and organized characteristics possessed by an individual, which uniquely influence the individual’s cognition, motivation and behavior in various situations (Ryckman, 2004). 2.2.2 Psychological factors Engel et al. (1995) and Kotler and Armstrong (2000) pointed out that customer decision-making is further influenced by four key psychological factors; motivation, perception, belief and attitude. Read Less