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Guiding Future Now: Evaluating Ethics Guidelines on AI and Making AI Policy Recommendations

Written by Anonymous

Paper category

Essay

Subject

Business Administration>Management

Year

2021

Abstract

Essay: Since science fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1950, p. 43) published the Three Laws of Robotics in 1942, discussions on the development and use of ethical artificial intelligence (AI) devices have only increased Relevance. For example, the United States (National Science and Technology Commission, 2016), the European Union (High-level Expert Group, 2019a), and the People's Republic of China (Beijing Institute of Artificial Intelligence, 2019) have published ethics guidelines on artificial intelligence in the past five years. At the same time, although AI has already begun to affect daily life (Carillo, 2020, p. 9), the anthropomorphic view of AI in our society shaped by literature and movies prevents humans from accepting it as a current reality. 'salgorithm helps to create filter bubbles, to make users feel better by filling news sources with content that validates their opinions, and to provide insights into the risks and consequences of AI technology (Borchers, 2018). Although the values ​​and principles for the development and use of ethical artificial intelligence systems have been established in the past, the rapid development and increasing use of artificial intelligence systems that operate autonomously to a certain extent make it necessary to shift the debate from theory to practical application . Therefore. , This article aims to answer the question of what regulations must be implemented to ensure that society benefits from artificial intelligence technology. Assuming that their own moral principles, due to their non-mandatory nature, are not sufficient to ensure the moral development and use of artificial intelligence systems. In addition, as leading companies in the field of artificial intelligence act globally and become stronger than oil companies, it is assumed that international law is needed to monitor and protect the development of artificial intelligence and the use of ethical artificial intelligence (Risse, 2019, p. Page 19). 12). This article has two goals: first evaluate the governance capabilities of ethical standards for artificial intelligence, and then propose artificial intelligence policy recommendations. Through literature review to determine relevant artificial intelligence ethics and scientific articles proposing legislative changes, as the first step in answering research questions. Since there is no universal definition of AI available, the concept is clarified. Subsequently, the key aspects of the ethical code were analyzed, and the criticism of the ethical code was discussed using the "European Credible Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics" as an example. Finally, the article provides a structured overview of the legal fields and policy recommendations affected by artificial intelligence. Definition of artificial intelligence The artificial intelligence device mentioned in this article is defined as a system that uses digital models, symbolic rules, and can adjust its behavior by analyzing the impact of its previous actions on the environment (Artificial Intelligence Advanced Expert Group, 2019a, 36th ). They are not intelligent in the human sense, but they can create intelligent results by applying heuristics, patterns and rules (Surden, 2019, p. 1337). AI systems can be purely software-based or integrated into hardware; for example, they can be search engine algorithms, facial recognition systems, or embedded in self-driving cars (The High-Level Expert Group, 2019b, p. 1 ). It is important to distinguish between artificial intelligence and general artificial intelligence. The latter describes self-conscious intelligence including generalist thinking. General artificial intelligence will be able to learn in the same way as humans, generalize learning, and apply it to completely different environments (Winfield, 2019, p. 3). According to Calo (2017, p. 432), such artificial general intelligence has not yet and is extremely unlikely to be created. Therefore, it is excluded from this article. 2. Methodology As artificial intelligence ethics is a broad research topic, from the formulation of ethical principles to how to implement them, the literature review focuses on comprehensive ethical guidelines and scientific papers discussing artificial intelligence, ethics, and law. DigiBib Katalog Plus combines multiple trusted databases (for example, APA PsycArticles and BusinessSourcePremier) and Google Scholar to identify relevant scientific articles. Keywords include artificial intelligence and ethics, artificial intelligence guidelines, and artificial intelligence and law. In addition, papers that only deal with artificial intelligence and specific artificial intelligence-related topics, such as lethal autonomous weapon systems, are excluded. In addition, articles before 2016 were not included in the review. A Google search has been conducted to determine the code of ethics for artificial intelligence. Academic databases have been excluded because ethical codes are regarded as grey literature because they are published by government agencies and private organizations. Search using keywords such as artificial intelligence guidelines, artificial intelligence principles, and artificial intelligence ethics. Use Ghostery to solve the problem of personalized search results, a tool that blocks trackers and data analysis to prevent personalization of Web content. 3. Overview of the results of the code of ethics Although many different parties have participated in the debate on artificial intelligence, the global discussion on the code of ethics is still dominated by government agencies and private companies (Hagendorff, 2020, p. 103). The AI ​​Association partnerships of Amazon, Apple, Baidu, Facebook, Google, IBM, and Intel reflect the private digital industry’s interest in AI governance (Calo, 2017, p. 406). Read Less