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The influence of leadership roles and management instruments on public service motivation

Written by J. Arendt

Paper category

Bachelor Thesis


Business Administration>Leadership




Bachelor Thesis: Theory and Concepts Public service motivation can be defined as the tendency of individuals to respond to motivations primarily or uniquely based on public institutions and organizations (Perry & Wise, 1990, p.368). The main aspect is that individuals do good for others and shape social well-being (Vandenabeele, 2014, p. 153). Perry and Wise's PSM theory shows in a clear way what public service motives “include”. The motivations mentioned in the definition can be divided into three different areas: rational motivation, norm-based motivation and emotional motivation. Rational motivation involves actions based on maximizing personal utility, such as participating in the organization's policy making process or committing to a public plan because the individual agrees with the plan (Perry & Wise, 1990, p.368). Norm-based motivation refers to behaviors that result from efforts to comply with norms, such as the desire to serve the public interest or loyalty to duties (Perry & Wise, 1990, p. 368-369). In contrast, emotional motivation refers to behavioral impulses based on emotional responses to various social contexts, such as benevolent patriotism or belief in plans due to its social importance. These motives exist because individuals’ attitudes and feelings towards public projects have no real relationship with norms or rationality. Therefore, the diversity of these motivations can explain public service motivations, but it is also important to emphasize that all public employees are actually driven by their needs. Management plays an important role in motivating public workers. The theory of Perry and Wise gives a general idea of ​​what public service motivation is, but it is still imprecise to find management tools that enhance motivation. To fill this gap, researcher Yair Re'em has implemented a wide range of practical strategies to enhance motivation (Re'em, 2011, p. 49). This set refers to different categories: reward, recognition, feedback, relevance/commitment, responsibility/autonomy, achievement/challenge/goal setting, career development, training, fun and importance of work, participation, interpersonal relationship, work Environment, equity and work-life balance (Re'em, 2011, p. 49). In these categories, different strategies are mentioned, and managers can use these strategies to influence motivation. For example, based on rewards, Re'em recommends that managers should give rewards that are closely related to behavior and performance and that are related to feedback. Managers should pay more attention to future performance rather than final past mistakes. In addition, it is also important to provide employees with informal recognition, because it has a huge impact on their happiness and motivation, and it does not cost the manager any money (Re'em, 2011, p. 49). In addition, these four dimensions depict the potential value of guiding environmental management and internal organization integration, but in fact, these dimensions are not mutually exclusive, but each organization expresses each dimension to a certain extent, which means that some organizations Emphasize some more than others (Kalliath et al., 1999, p. 145). This means that, for example, organizations that emphasize trust and belonging tend to show higher importance in the interpersonal relationship quadrant, so the leadership style of such organizations relies on teamwork, participation, empowerment, and attention to employee ideas (Kalliath Et al. 1999, p. 194). If an organization has more advantages in adapting to the external environment, then it is often located in the open system dimension. Most people who lead such organizations value and support strategies for flexibility, growth, innovation, and creativity (Kalliath et al., 1999, p. 145). Different organizations that set values ​​in terms of efficiency, performance, mission focus, and goal clarity mostly dominate the rational goal dimension, which means that leaders in such organizations value mission focus and goal clarity because they think these Values ​​promote productivity and efficiency (Kalliath et al., 1999, p. 145). According to the last dimension, the internal process dimension, it is obvious that the organization located there emphasizes proceduralization, centralization, control, stability, continuity, and order (Kalliath et al., 1999, p. 145). Based on these values, employees are rewarded for complying with rules and leadership agreements and measuring all aspects of their work because they believe that formalization and regularization will bring stability, order, and continuity (Kalliath et al., 1999, p. 145 Page). The four core dimensions (hereafter referred to as "quadrants") include different priorities, goals, and practices, as well as different leadership roles. The quadrant in the upper right corner of the model has a core dimension of "creation" (Lawrence, p. 9). The focus of organizations that see high importance in the "creation" dimension is to have a vision of something. This is supported by the purpose of innovation and growth, which means such practices as encouraging radical thinking, launching new businesses and change initiatives, and reforming old ways of doing things (Lawrence, p. 10). The two leadership roles in this quadrant are "innovator" and "broker", and they have different main types of behavior. "Innovators" have a lot to do with creativity, which means that people of this type live in change, think creatively and create change (Baráth, 2009). Compared with this role, "brokers" believe that they are very important in establishing and maintaining a power base, negotiating general agreements and commitments, and proposing ideas (Baráth, 2009). Read Less