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Decision-making process in Tourism - How ecolabels on hotels influence the decision-making process for the German Generation Z

Written by Anonymous

Grade 1,9

Paper category

Bachelor Thesis

Subject

Business Administration>General

Year

2021

Abstract

"Bachelor Thesis: The decision-making process of the tourism industry Understanding the customer's decision-making process is a milestone in marketing strategy (Cohen, S.A; Prayag, G.; Moital, M; 2014, p.8). Only by understanding customers and their motivations can we operate more effectively. Decision-making is the process of choosing between various alternatives to achieve the desired results and meet individual needs. The more factors that need to be considered, the more complicated the process (Eisenführ, F.; Weber, M.; Langer, T. 2010, p.2). In connection with travel, many decisions need to be made, such as where to go, what type of transportation to choose, and where and how to stay overnight. The tourist routes are very diverse and complex (Christian, M et al, 2011, p.11). Generally speaking, the decision-making process can be explained as follows: Studying how and why people decide and behave in this way has long been a hot topic in science (Smallman, C; Moore, K. 2010, p.407-408). Therefore, There are many different methods, definitions and opinions on this topic. The scope of the thesis is not close to each one, but only a small insight. This topic became widely known when the first publications on decision-making process models were published in the 1960s and 1970s. The decision-making process is described as complex and multi-stage, affected by many factors, and finally achieves satisfactory and unsatisfactory results (Erasmus, A.; Boshoff, E.; Rousseau, 2001, p. 83). Many of these scientific papers conclude that consumers will make rational decisions. The tourism industry also relies on these external scientific studies (Cohen, S.A.; Prayag, G.; Moital, M, 2014, p. 8). As with any theoretical method and scientific work, there are criticisms of previously outdated decision-making methods. According to McCabe, Li, and Chen (2015), the following criticisms hinder the progress of science: rationality and too much focus on input and output variables rather than cognitive processes (p. 9). To clarify, the ""push"" factor refers to the needs, desires and motivations of travelers, and explains why people want to leave their usual living space, the ""pull"" factor explains why they choose this destination or activity, and Why this is so attractive (Uysal, M.; Li, X.; Sirakaya-Turk, E., 2008, p.414). The cognitive process pays more attention to the psychological process of final decision (Correia, A.; Kozak, M.; Tao, M. 2014, p, 300). The figure below shows a good example of a cognitive model of the tourism decision-making process. At first glance, this process is very complicated and depends on many different influences. According to Decrop, these effects are divided into three main types and variables that may affect the decision-making process, namely: personal, interpersonal and environmental factors (2010, p. 255). Personal factors include motivation, lifestyle or emotions. Interpersonal factors can be perception or learning. Environmental factors include social and cultural influences and situational variables such as time, money or health (Decrop, A. 2006, p.7). It is important to distinguish between influential and non-influencing factors for tourists. For example, tourists have no influence on economic or social cultural factors, but have influence on factors such as time, motivation, or lifestyle. At each step, the tourist must make a decision, for example, decide to travel, and then delve into which destination to go and exclude other options (Um, S.; Crompton, J. 1990, p.434). It is impossible to discuss all the influencing factors that affect the decision-making process, but one factor is often prominent, that is, motivation. Motivation is described as the ""driving force behind all behaviors"" (Fodness, D. 1994, p.555), as shown in Figure 2, when it is the first general decision of the holiday. The reason why understanding motivation is so important is that, for example, better products and services can be provided, and only by understanding the motivation of customers can we fully understand the decision-making process (Crompton, J.; McKay, S., 1997, p. 426) ). In general, people have found that there are two forces that can explain why people are motivated to travel (Sirakaya, E.; Uysal, M.; Yoshioka, C. 2003, p.301): 1. Want to forget about the daily environment Post-Escape from the personal and/or interpersonal environment. 2. The desire to obtain psychological or intrinsic rewards by traveling in contrasting environments-seeking personal and/or interpersonal rewards. Once the motivation develops independently, it is the destination, especially the destination image (Chon, K., 1991 p.69) and its perception (Oppermann, M.; Chon, K., 1997. p.180) to decide where to go. This is just one of the first decisions and influences when making travel decisions. As mentioned at the beginning and shown in the model, many researchers assume that the final decision is well planned. However, more and more studies, such as the study of Hyde and Lawson (2003), show that the decision-making process can be planned, unplanned, or even impulsive (p. 19). Another outstanding study comes from Bargeman and van der Poel (2006). They found that travel is almost considered ""normal"" today, and so is the same." Read Less