Smart City concepts and their approach on sustainability, transportation and tourism
Waterborne transportation, an opportunity for sustainability?
Written by J. C. Hönninger
Master Thesis: Smart City As mentioned earlier, 70% of the population in 2050 will live in cities, which is estimated to account for 60% of the total GDP and consume up to 70% of the world’s energy. This makes cities the most important consideration when talking about sustainable change (Bibri & Krogstie, 2020a; Bibri & Krogstie, 2020b; Guerra et al., 2017). Therefore, focusing on the sustainability of cities is an important step to achieve higher resource efficiency. By strengthening the transportation infrastructure, including waterways, resources can be used more efficiently and used as renewable energy to provide nutrients to the city's energy system. The concept of smart city is often regarded by scholars as an important step towards more sustainable development. The smart city phenomenon has received increasing attention from scholars and governance and technology giants such as IBM and Cisco in the past few years (Z. Tang et al., 2018). By 2020, the smart city market is expected to exceed USD 1.2 trillion (Z. Tang et al., 2018), and by 2026 it is expected to exceed USD 3.48 trillion (Qi & Shen, 2018). Although many concepts have been implemented, the subject is still in the early stages of its existence. However, due to the attention paid by many scholars and government agencies to the topic, various definitions have been defined, which have certain common points, but there is still no one definition that can accommodate all different viewpoints (Matsumoto et al., 2019). The definition made in the paper by Cristea et al. (2016), Gupta and Garg (2017), Sutriadi (2018), Hartati and Wahid (2019), Ahmed and others. (2020) and various other shows, how each author handles the subject slightly differently year after year, taking into account different priorities. In order to demonstrate the complexity of the subject, Toli and Murtagh (2020) identified 42 different definitions and tried to arrive at a final version to merge them together. By looking at multiple definitions of smart cities, for this paper, the author tries to combine his own definitions based on various framework methods. Toli & Murtagh (2020) has determined that smart cities are a comprehensive effort to improve quality through effective resource management. A sustainable approach facilitates the lives of its citizens (health, education, safety and others) and tourists, educates about sustainability and harmony between people and the planet, and strengthens infrastructure and innovation. Through the use of transparent information and communication technology (ICT) to monitor, analyze and optimize society (citizen participation, equity, governance, public-private partnership (PPP)), cities (green space, mixed land use, biodiversity) and physical (resources) , Waste, transportation, etc.) system. In a smart city, there are many different and important aspects, as seen by various definitions. 2.3. Smart tourism Considering that cities can be regarded as an important factor for sustainable development, people not only need to consider the possibility of making urban life more sustainable, but also need to consider allowing people to travel between cities or stay for a period of time. Taking into account the various people moving within the urban barriers, tourists are an important part of daily life, some cities have more, some cities have less. In addition, according to Yavuz et al. (2018) Tourism can be regarded as an important factor in urban economic development. With this in mind, tourism in cities with water bodies, as well as the entire industry, cruise ships, is also very interested in water transportation, sightseeing, and daily transportation inside and outside the city. Tourism is an industry that is related to many other industries in various other industries, such as the food and clothing industries. Therefore, by making tourism more sustainable go hand in hand with the sustainable development of the city itself, cities can benefit from a more sustainable tourism sector, and vice versa (Liu, 2019; Yavuz et al., 2018). Therefore, a detailed study of the tourism industry, whether active or passive, will help achieve the goal of becoming a more sustainable city. Yavuz et al. (2018) Discuss the development of smart cities and view various rankings of leading concepts to study the connection between successful smart cities and their tourism sector and their city brands. They believe that the main contributors of smart tourism are: governance, mobility, quality of the public domain, sustainable environment and resources, and finally entrepreneurship and international economy. The concept of Yavuz et al. (2018) Putting people first, try our best to make people's stay as pleasant as possible and let residents live their daily lives. However, one of the important factors that need to be considered when enhancing these sectors through further connections in technology and infrastructure is data security and personal privacy (Laudrain, 2019; Lee et al., 2020). It is of high value to gain appeal in a highly competitive market, especially among the younger generation (Zhao et al., 2017). However, as connectivity increases, so does the vulnerability to cyber attacks and data abuse (Vogiatzaki et al., 2020). In addition, incorporating the international economy into the process of enhancing technological solutions raises ethical questions about the ownership of the collected data and how it is used. Without government intervention, data can be distributed to international companies to increase profits, and people can quickly become a system based on the concept of people, treating them as data producers and feedback rather than consumers (Kitchin et al. , 2018). Therefore, the following sections will explain each of these so-called "operation fields". Read Less