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How Does Intrinsic Motivation Moderate The Effect of Gamification on The Sustained Use of Wearable Fitness Technology?

A Quantitative Study

Written by J. Kose, R. Eriksson & A. Tacke

Paper category

Master Thesis


Business Administration>Marketing & Sales




Master Thesis: The impact of attitude and motivation on continuous WFT use According to Peak and Jones (1995), attitude and motivation are two interdependent concepts, which are consistent with the findings of Wang (2017). This means that these two concepts are closely related. This is further consistent with Beebe et al. (1999) believes that attitude is a psychological component that can establish motivation to perform a certain behavior. In addition, Westen (1999) pointed out that behavior is greatly influenced by attitude and motivation. Bakar et al. (2010) conducted a study to investigate the relationship between student achievement motivation and attitude. The results support the interdependence of attitude and motivation because a significant correlation was found (Bakar et al., 2010). All these results emphasize the positive correlation between attitude and motivation (Peak & Jones, 1955; Beebe et al., 1999); Bakar et al., 2010). In addition, the WFT literature results show that there is an interdependence between attitude and motivation. Several previous studies on WFT investigated the relationship between attitudes, motivations, and behavioral intentions using this technique (Zaremohzzabieh et al., 2015; Lunney et al., 2016; Asimakopoulos et al., 2017). It is found that positive attitudes and motivations have a positive impact on the possibility of continuing to use WFT equipment (Fritz et al., 2014; Chang et al., 2016; Coorevits & Coenen, 2016; Lunney et al., 2016; Asimakopoulos et al., 2017). Results of Asimakopoulos et al. (2017) researched how self-efficacy, motivation, and health technology factors affect an individual's attitude towards WFT, supporting this argument. Based on the above results, some people believe that the attitude towards WFT equipment has a positive impact on the repeated and/or continuous use of WFT, and will affect the user's experience of using WFT equipment. At the same time, it is pointed out that high motivation has a positive effect on continued use. This can be related to Coorevits and Coenen (2016), who believe that motivation based on social comparison can further promote the continued use of WFT equipment. In addition, Fritz et al. (2014) and recently Chang et al. (2016) believes that increased motivation can prevent the wear and tear of WFT because users have a higher willingness to achieve their physical activity goals. 2.2 Three-component Attitude Model Lantos (2011) pointed out that three components, namely emotion, cognition and suggestion, construct an individual's overall attitude towards the object of attitude (AO). And the first component of influence is the individual's emotions towards the object. 2.2.1 AffectAffect is related to the general feelings or emotions of the individual, that is, the emotional appeals to AO such as like/dislike, love/hate (Evans et al., 2009; Lantos, 2011; Chen & Cheng, 2012, Chih et al., 2015) . Chen & Cheng (2012) believe that the impact of consumer evaluation is based on the consistency between the expectations provided by the AO and the individual's perception of the actual provision. 2.2.2 Cognitive cognition refers to the descriptive beliefs and ideas that a person has about AO. This belief usually involves the physical properties of AO and the cognitive value that can be derived from it (Evans et al., 2009; Lantos, 2011). 2.2.3. ConationConation is referred to as an individual's behavioral intentions and behavior-related tendencies, refer to AO (Evans et al., 2009; Lantos, 2011, Chen and Cheng, 2012). Such actions or behaviors exist in emotional and cognitive components (Lantos, 2011). 2.3 Intrinsic motivation Vallerand and Thill (1993) mentioned that motivation is affected by internal and/or external forces. The two main types of motivation that have been studied are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation 2 have been shown to be key factors for athletes to succeed in sports (Gould et al., 2002). In addition, it has been described that the motivational process as a mental construct can stimulate, guide, and regulate achievement behavior (Vallerand, 2007). According to the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), human behavior can be divided into three types of motivations. A person can be internally motivated, externally motivated, or unmotivated (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). This distinction is based on different reasons for human actions or behaviors. The structure of intrinsic motivation was first mentioned in an experimental study conducted by White (1959). In this study, it was found that many people engage in exploratory, interesting and curiosity-driven behaviors even without any type of reinforcement or reward. As far as humans are concerned, there are different types of motivation, but intrinsic motivation is still described as a universal and important motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). In addition, it was pointed out that this natural motivational tendency is essential for cognitive, social and physical development. Intrinsic motivation is described as a motivation derived from a person's intrinsic reason, such as interest. In SDT, intrinsic motivation is considered the most self-determining type of motivation (Duda, 2007; Vallerand, 2007). Read Less