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Influencer marketing: What if everything revolves around the consumer’s self-esteem

A study about the purchasing behaviour of Swedish women in relation to influencer marketing

Written by J. Almström, L. Egertz & B. Truong

Paper category

Bachelor Thesis


Business Administration>Marketing & Sales




Thesis: From celebrity endorsement to influencer marketing A celebrity endorsement is a celebrity who appreciates public recognition and uses this recognition to appear in advertisements to increase the sales of endorsement products (McCracken, 1989; Bergkvist & Zhou, 2016). Influencers build celebrity status by attracting attention, and brands use this attention to attract a wider audience (Hearn & Schoenhoff, 2016). The main difference between traditional celebrities and influential people is their original origin and reputation. Traditional celebrities are mainly known for their outstanding performance in specific areas (Escalas & Bettman, 2017; Abidin, 2018), while influential people are associated with online fame and their ability to enhance their image through social media use (Khamis, Ang & Welling, 2016). Since consumers tend to trust online celebrities more than traditional celebrities, online celebrity marketing is considered a new version of celebrity endorsements (Weinswig, 2016; Arnold, 2017). 2.2.2 Internet celebrity The concept of Internet celebrity comes from the definition of Internet celebrity, and is no longer regarded as a hobby, part of popular culture or part of the entertainment industry. On the contrary, influential people establish themselves as elite economic groups, specializing in how to transform digital reputations into private brands and ultimately into enterprises (Abidin, 2018). Influencers tend to build trustworthy channels and enhance information because they are able to create highly attractive and personalized content in various social media (Abidin, 2018). The term "influencer" originated in the mid-2010s, but the concept has been used longer. It all started with young women, each of whom set up their own online diary, also known as an Internet blog, where they wrote about clothes and posted photos of themselves in different outfits (Abidin & Thompson, 2012). These blogs have gained a loyal following, which has also brought a wide reputation for blog owners. The most popular blog later became a developed fashion store. The owner of the blog created his own brand and designed his own exclusive products. In addition to established businesses, these women continue to update their blogs and eventually develop their content on other platforms (Abidin, 2017). The dramatic growth of the blogging industry has helped expand the platform, which has led to an increase in followers and consumers. This recognition has led to a series of new lifestyle blogs, which are articles written by young women about their own daily lives. Their goal is to build a personal brand and use it to promote their store on their blog. These lifestyle blogs maintain such high traffic that they are beginning to attract advertisers who are willing to work with them by paying for advertising space and sponsorship fees. 2.2.3 The credibility of influencers Dishonest marketing, the use of the tax system, and abuse on social media have begun to appear in the past few years (Abidin, 2018). Some countries have introduced new regulations and instructions on national advertising. Some of these countries are: Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Sweden (Purtill, 2017; Hunt, 2017; Fortune, 2017; Åhsberger and Lindgren, 2018). In order to obtain more opportunities and benefits from different advertising companies in the future, superficial reviews of products by Internet celebrities have become more and more common (Farooqi, Jourjon, Ikram, Kaafar, De Cristofaro, Shafiq & Zaffar, 2017). The market value of influencers is mainly determined by the number of followers, subscribers and likes determined by observation, and the company pays to influencers based on this estimated range of influence (Momtaz, Aghaie and Alizadeh 2011; Pophal, 2016; Abidin, 2018 ). However, just looking at these numbers may be detrimental to the company. Records show that some influencers have been buying followers or using different functions, such as clicking on the farm to generate likes on posts (Abidin, 2018). In addition, influencers and aspiring people have been exposed for buying verified badges for different social platforms on the black market (Stern, 2017). Influencer marketing is to identify suitable influencers for the target audience that advertisers want to reach, and finding suitable influencers for specific products can be challenging (Araujo et al., 2017). The credibility of the influencer may be compromised by many factors, for example, if he or promotes many different products without a clear connection between the products (De Veirman et al., 2017), or the influencer seems to mainly use his own Fame comes to advertising early in your career (Carrillat & Ilicic, 2019). For consumers with high self-esteem, it is also very important to match advertisements with the identities of influencers (Jin & Phua, 2014; Escalas & Bettman, 2017). Therefore, it is very important for a brand to find an internet celebrity that is loved by its fans. However, identifying suitable and qualified influencers is equally important. Research has found that there is a positive correlation between attitudes towards influencers and followers’ buying intentions. Essentially, a positive impression of influencers will lead to a positive attitude towards the brand, which will increase buying opportunities (Silvera & Austad, 2004; Amos, Holmes & Strutton, 2008; Schemer, Mathes, Wirth & Textor, 2008). 2.3 Source credibility Source credibility is the professional knowledge and knowledge that the target audience obtains from their perception of the source to understand the attributes and characteristics of the product or service (Shan, 2016). Source credibility is based on three different elements: attractiveness, expertise, and credibility (Ohanian, 1990). Read Less